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However, there may well be a justification on economic grounds that such activities (and the countries from which they emanate) should at least bear some of the costs, direct and indirect, associated with running the RFMO. , embargoes). Embargoes can be effective and seem to act as an incentive to comply with rules. For example, the import ban on tuna from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was lifted in 2001 as the Grenadines increasingly co-operated with ICCAT. Embargoes may also incite some Non-Contracting Parties to join relevant RFMOs, as illustrated by Panama and Honduras which joined ICCAT in 1998 and 2001 respectively.

WHY FISH PIRACY PERSISTS: THE ECONOMICS OF ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED FISHING – ISBN- 9264010874 © OECD 2005 CHAPTER 1 – SYNTHESIS REPORT – Illegal Fishing Activities The term “illegal” refers to fishing operations conducted by vessels of countries that are party to regional fisheries management organisations or belong to co-operating States, but which operate in violation of their rules, or foreign vessels operating in a country’s waters without permission. The fact that the operation is illegal means that a legal framework is already in place but that it is ineffective in terms of surveillance and enforcement, and is therefore an insufficient deterrent.

These instruments are also essentially complementary in nature to achieve their objective toward sustainable and responsible fisheries. 1. of Annex 2 provides a summary of OECD member countries’ status with respect to major international agreements. Although both the UNFSA and the FAO Compliance Agreement have entered into force the level of participation by States is far from universal. The level of voluntary compliance with the Code of Conduct and IPOA-IUU is also less than satisfactory. This situation highlights one of the major shortcomings of international law; that treaties are binding only on those States that ratify or accede to them.

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