By G. Kolodko
Comparative economics and social technology research are all engaged in a complete assurance of the problems dealing with the worldwide economic system. a fancy and dynamic attention explains how issues paintings and the way they'll and the way they need to paintings sooner or later. financial method on my own doesn't give you the so much passable solutions for basic questions. An interdisciplinary perspective is important, because the way forward for the area and civilisation relies not just on what occurs within the monetary sphere but additionally vis-à-vis cultural, social, political, demographic, technological, and ecological strategies. This moment quantity discusses the threats and possibilities of the longer term, and proposes techniques for tactics to maneuver forward.
The learn is written in an highbrow and but obtainable type, which makes it crucial examining for college students, researchers and students; politicians and policy-makers; and the lay reader.
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Additional info for Whither the World: The Political Economy of the Future, Volume 2
However, it is not an option for many other raw materials. Reserves of some metals are running dry faster than fossil fuels. For some types of rare earth metals The Social and Ecological Limits to Growth 251 not only the youngest of us will live to experience peak minerals; it will come fast enough for the older ones to learn of it, too. These days we experience acute shortages, which represent a bottleneck for the continued expansion of some industries. Without rare earth metals mobile telephony and high-tech television could not have developed; they are also indispensable in products as diverse as hybrid car engines and solar energy panels; they are essential both to high-speed trains using magnetic levitation and to painless dental services.
These are huge changes – in terms of quality, and not only quantity – which place humanity in a new situation. 261 262 Whither the World: The Political Economy of the Future Oddly enough, the number of immigrants is also rising in South America. Again, mostly from Europe. I’m saying “again”, because Europeans have once before settled in the lands to the west of the Atlantic. In the decade leading up to the last crisis, in the years 1998–2007, a million and a half people migrated to Spain from Latin America, planning to stay there for long periods or even forever.
Thus, a government intervention in the public interest enforces market adjustment through technological progress stimulated at the top level. If we should run out of petroleum, we still have shale gas but its exploitation poses a serious threat to the environment. There’s also coal, of which we have enough reserves to last for several hundred years. However, it is being abandoned in favor of other energy materials due to relatively higher environmental impact than that of petroleum and natural gas, mostly because of the high emissions of carbon dioxide that pollutes the atmosphere.