By Daniel P. Bovet, Marco Cesati
In order to completely comprehend what makes Linux tick and why it really works so good on a wide selection of structures, you want to delve deep into the center of the kernel. The kernel handles all interactions among the CPU and the exterior international, and determines which courses will percentage processor time, in what order. It manages constrained reminiscence so good that 1000s of strategies can proportion the approach successfully, and expertly organizes information transfers in order that the CPU isn't stored ready any further than priceless for the particularly gradual disks.
The 3rd version of Understanding the Linux Kernel takes you on a guided travel of the main major facts constructions, algorithms, and programming tips utilized in the kernel. Probing past superficial beneficial properties, the authors supply important insights to those who need to know how issues relatively paintings within their computing device. vital Intel-specific gains are mentioned. correct segments of code are dissected line via line. however the booklet covers greater than simply the functioning of the code; it explains the theoretical underpinnings of why Linux does issues how it does.
This variation of the publication covers model 2.6, which has noticeable major alterations to almost each kernel subsystem, fairly within the components of reminiscence administration and block units. The booklet specializes in the next topics:
* reminiscence administration, together with dossier buffering, technique swapping, and Direct reminiscence entry (DMA)
* The digital Filesystem layer and the second one and 3rd prolonged Filesystems
* technique construction and scheduling
* indications, interrupts, and the fundamental interfaces to gadget drivers
* Synchronization in the kernel
* Interprocess conversation (IPC)
* software execution
Understanding the Linux Kernel will acquaint you with all of the internal workings of Linux, yet it's greater than simply an educational workout. You'll research what stipulations convey out Linux's top functionality, and you'll see the way it meets the problem of delivering stable procedure reaction in the course of method scheduling, dossier entry, and reminiscence administration in a large choice of environments. This publication can assist you're making the main of your Linux system.
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Additional info for Understanding the Linux Kernel (3rd Edition)
For example, when a new process is created, the kernel just assigns the parent’s page frames to the child address space, but marks them read-only. An exception is raised as soon as the parent or the child tries to modify the contents of a page. The exception handler assigns a new page frame to the affected process and initializes it with the contents of the original page. Caching A good part of the available physical memory is used as cache for hard disks and other block devices. This is because hard drives are very slow: a disk access requires several milliseconds, which is a very long time compared with the RAM access time.
When a kernel control path wishes to access the data structure, it executes the down( ) method on the proper semaphore. If the value of the new semaphore isn’t negative, access to the data structure is granted. Otherwise, the process that is executing the kernel control path is added to the semaphore list and blocked. When another process executes the up( ) method on that semaphore, one of the processes in the semaphore list is allowed to proceed. Spin locks In multiprocessor systems, semaphores are not always the best solution to the synchronization problems.
Signals and Interprocess Communication Unix signals provide a mechanism for notifying processes of system events. Each event has its own signal number, which is usually referred to by a symbolic constant such as SIGTERM. There are two kinds of system events: Asynchronous notifications For instance, a user can send the interrupt signal SIGINT to a foreground process by pressing the interrupt keycode (usually Ctrl-C) at the terminal. Synchronous notifications For instance, the kernel sends the signal SIGSEGV to a process when it accesses a memory location at an invalid address.