By Christian Benvenuti
If you've ever puzzled how Linux includes out the advanced projects assigned to it via the IP protocols — or in case you simply are looking to find out about glossy networking via real-life examples — realizing Linux community Internals is for you.
Like the preferred O'Reilly e-book, realizing the Linux Kernel, this ebook essentially explains the underlying strategies and teaches you the way to keep on with the particular C code that implements it. even though a few history within the TCP/IP protocols is beneficial, you could study greatly from this article concerning the protocols themselves and their makes use of. And if you happen to have already got a base wisdom of C, you should use the book's code walkthroughs to determine precisely what this refined a part of the Linux kernel is doing.
Part of the trouble in realizing networks — and enforcing them — is that the initiatives are damaged up and played at many various occasions by means of various items of code. one of many strengths of this booklet is to combine the items and show the relationships among far-flung features and information buildings. figuring out Linux community Internals is either a big-picture dialogue and a no-nonsense consultant to the main points of Linux networking. themes include:
Key issues of networking
community interface card (NIC) gadget drivers
Layer 2 (link-layer) initiatives and implementation
Layer three (IPv4) projects and implementation
Neighbor infrastructure and protocols (ARP)
Author Christian Benvenuti, an working process clothier focusing on networking, explains even more than how Linux code works. He indicates the needs of significant networking gains and the trade-offs occupied with picking one answer over one other. numerous flowcharts and different diagrams improve the book's understandability
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Extra info for Understanding Linux Network Internals
H. h files mentioned earlier. 16 | Chapter 1: Introduction This is the Title of the Book, eMatter Edition Copyright © 2008 O’Reilly & Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Catching Bugs A few functions are supposed to be called under specific conditions, or are not supposed to be called under certain conditions. The kernel uses the BUG_ON and BUG_TRAP macros to catch cases where such conditions are not met. When the input condition to BUG_TRAP is false, the kernel prints a warning message. BUG_ON instead prints an error message and panics.
Iph->tos; TCP_SKB_CB(skb)->sacked = 0; ... ... c. That function is used by TCP to push a data segment down to the IP layer for transmission. In Chapter 22, you will also see how IPv4 uses cb to store information about IP fragmentation. unsigned int csum unsigned char ip_summed These represent the checksum and associated status flag. Their use is described in Chapter 19. unsigned char cloned A boolean flag that, when set, indicates that this structure is a clone of another sk_buff buffer. ” unsigned char pkt_type This field classifies the type of frame based on its L2 destination address.
This leads to gradual memory exhaustion. • If you take a reference to a data structure but forget to call xxx_hold, and at some later point you happen to be the only reference holder, the structure will be prematurely freed because you are not accounted for. This case definitely can be more catastrophic than the previous one; your next attempt to access the structure can corrupt other data or cause a kernel panic that brings down the whole system instantly. When a data structure is to be removed for some reason, the reference holders can be explicitly notified about its going away so that they can politely release their references.