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By F.G. Tickell (Eds.)

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Extra resources for The Techniques of Sedimentary Mineralogy

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Concentration processes make use of the buoyancy or velocity of a fluid: air, water, or various liquids. The methods of concentration of especial utility in mineral grain study are: (I) panning, and (2) heavy liquid concentration. Panning Panning is done either with a gold pan or with a batea. ). For example, the separation of heavy accessory minerals from clay or from glass-sand calls for a large sample. The sample is placed i n the pan, covered with water, and worked with the hands until lumps are broken and the material is wet.

There is great variability in porous substances with respect to permeability. Open textured sands may give values as high as several thousand millidarcies, while close grained shales may give values as low as a few hundredths of a millidarcy. ); p = viscosity of the fluid (centipoise); k = permeability (darcy). For the viscous regime, D'ARCY(1856) developed the empirical relationship which can most conveniently be expressed in the following form : + If the flow is viscous, the velocity Q/A is a linear function of the pressure gradient (PI Pz)/L, so that if from the experimental data values of Q / A be plotted against corresponding values of (PI - P 2 ) / L , a continuous graph will result which will pass through the origin and which, for the viscous regime (for double log paper), will t e linear with a slope of 45".

Since the same air flows through both, any change in air viscosity from either temperature changes or water vapor will have no effect on the relative pressure readings. A second method of simplifying calculations involves preparing calibration charts or tables showing the permeancel versus the outlet pressure for given inlet pressures and orifices. The following formula applies : The permeance, usually referred to as “apparent permeability,” is the proper term for flow capacity. Its use is analogous to the term “conductance” for the flow of current through an electrolyte solution.

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