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By E. R. Pounder, J. A. Jacobs and J. T. Wilson (Auth.)

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T h e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n i n t h e B e a u f o r t G y r a l is a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e fact t h a t t h i s a r e a o f t h e P o l a r B a s i n is c o v e r e d b y a s e m i - p e r m a n e n t h i g h p r e s s u r e a r e a a n d hence has a clockwise wind circulation. (3) C o r i o l i s f o r c e , a force r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n , w h i c h a c t s a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r o f t h e ice a n d tries t o m o v e it t o t h e r i g h t o f t h i s d i r e c t i o n (in t h e N o r t h e r n H e m i sphere).

T h e " r o u g h n e s s p a r a m e t e r " , ICE DRIFT 41 z09 is a m e a s u r e o f t h e u n e v e n n e s s o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e ice, a n d is u s u a l l y t a k e n a s 3 % of t h e a v e r a g e h e i g h t o f t h e h u m m o c k s a b o v e t h e " l e v e r floe s u r f a c e . T h e difficulty o f u s i n g e q u a t i o n (1) a c c u r a t e l y lies in k n o w i n g w h a t v a l u e o f z0 t o a p p l y . A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n is t h a t t h e A r c t i c a t m o s p h e r e is u s u a l l y m o r e s t a b l e t h a n a n a d i a b a t i c o n e , so t h a t t h e l o g a r i t h m i c v a r i a t i o n of w i n d s p e e d w i t h h e i g h t , o n w h i c h e q u a t i o n (1) is b a s e d , is n o t q u i t e a c c u r a t e a n d t h e e q u a t i o n n e e d s slight m o d i f i c a t i o n .

A t first t h e s e w e r e s h i p s w h i c h v e n t u r e d i n t o t h e A r c t i c O c e a n (see F i g . 12) a n d d r i f t e d (not always intentionally) with the pack. Several ships were d e s t r o y e d b y t h e ice a n d in t h i s w o r k , a s i n o t h e r p h a s e s o f p o l a r e x p l o r a t i o n , t h e r e w a s c o n s i d e r a b l e loss of life. T h e first successful scientific drifting s t a t i o n w a s t h e c r u i s e of t h e Fram in 1 8 9 3 - 6 . ICE DRIFT 35 T h i s e x p e d i t i o n w a s led b y D r .

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