By Gail Dixon Paul Parsons
As essentially the most recognizable photographs in technological know-how, the periodic desk is ingrained in our tradition. First drawn up in 1869 by way of Dmitri Mendeleev, its 118 components make up not just every little thing on our planet but in addition every little thing within the whole universe.
The Periodic desk seems on the attention-grabbing tale and excellent makes use of of every of these components, even if stable, liquid or gasoline. From the little-known makes use of of gold in medication to the improvement of the hydrogen bomb, every one access is followed through technical facts (category, atomic quantity, weight, boiling element) awarded in easy-to-read headers, and a colour-coding process that is helping the reader to navigate throughout the assorted teams of elements.
A striking show of thought-provoking technology and lovely images, this advisor will permit the reader to find the area afresh.
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Extra resources for The Periodic Table
However, unlike iron, which will rust and gradually wear away, aluminum oxide (alumina) provides a protective coating and is particularly hard. This accounts for aluminum’s extensive use in the aerospace, railway, shipping and construction industries, and in food containers and cooking utensils. The name aluminum is derived from the Latin word alumen, meaning “alum,” which is a naturally occurring salt that was used in Roman times to stop bleeding. It is still in use today in the form of styptic pencils, which help to heal shaving cuts.
Several different forms of carbon were known to the ancients—such as charcoal, coal and graphite—but it wasn’t clear to them that these substances were just different facets of the same thing. This was established chemically in the 18th century. In 1779, German–Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite contained carbon. Seven years later, a French team showed that graphite was, in fact, made mostly of carbon. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust; the planet’s biosphere alone is home to 2,000 billion tons of the stuff.
This creates an open, crystalline lattice where the molecules are spread out and less dense in a given space. Hence ice is less dense than water and will float on its surface. There’s a similar explanation behind the annoyance of burst pipes in winter. If the water temperature is really low, the latticework of molecules in the ice makes it expand and the resultant build-up of pressure against the sides of the pipe causes it to burst. This is why it’s important to keep your heating on low during winter, even if you’re going away, and to insulate pipes that are in attics or close to external walls.