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By Peter L. Roudik

Important Asia's lengthy and intricate historical past is teeming with varied cultures and traditions. The international locations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have served as a huge cultural crossroad during the millennia, with many customs colliding and mixing alongside the best way. during this entire quantity, scholars can learn the way valuable Asia constructed in precedent days and the way the international locations of the steppes developed throughout the center a long time into sleek heritage. From the Silk street to Russian colonization to Soviet rule, critical Asia's ever-changing international locations proceed to play a huge position in overseas society this present day. This quantity is the fitting addition to any highschool, public, or undergraduate library.

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Extra resources for The History of the Central Asian Republics (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations)

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1 Initially, the Arab occupation of Central Asia was viewed by the caliphate exclusively as a resource for income; the entire population was levied with new taxes. The most draconic were the land and personal taxes imposed on those who did not convert to Islam. The Arabs plundered the locals, taking their houses for the occupying soldiers and Islamic clergy, and destroyed irrigation systems; prosperous lands turned to deserts under the Arab occupation. To attack cities, the Arabs used catapults and machines for breaking down the walls of the citadels.

C. c. Cyrus brought several thousand people to erect fortresses along the western bank of the Syr Darya and to guard his newly acquired territory from the nomadic tribes. c. During the reign of the Persian Empire, Samarkand was the seat of the governor, who ruled Central Asia on behalf of the king. , his son Bardiya was left to rule the eastern part of the Persian Empire. ), centralized government was introduced in the empire. All territories conquered by the Akhaemenids were divided into satrapies and ruled by satraps, governors appointed by Persian kings, usually from among relatives or trusted officers.

Kuteiba, who, in 704, was sent to the region to represent the caliph, helped one of the fighting rulers to defeat the enemy and then took the lands of those he had helped. The caliphate was successful ­because the Arabs could instigate fights between Turkic nomads and settlers in agricultural oases of Central Asia. Arabs’ military superiority and their ability to use the resources of the conquered countries were of great importance. 27 28 History of the Central Asian Republics Relations between the Arabs and the local people began with deception, when approximately fifty local lords from the Samarkand oasis were tricked into captivity by false promises of release when other prisoners would be ­delivered to Arabia.

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