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By Richard N. Frye

A learn of the history of primary Asia. It brings jointly such particular parts because the global of Zoroaster, the Achaemenid ecumene, the Sakas and later waves of nomadic invaders, the unfold of Buddhism alongside the Silk street, the historical function of the Turks, and extra.

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Extra info for The Heritage of Central Asia: From Antiquity to the Turkish Expansion (Princeton Series on the Middle East)

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1380--1250), and the newly developed state of U rartu (c. 830--730). 38 Beneath this interplay of what one might term the official nations, with their diplomatic games, dynastic marriages, intrigues and wars, yet another process of ethnic transformation was taking place. From about the eleventh century a mighty new wave of Semitic immigrants - Aramaeans and Chaldaeans - began to settle: the former in Assyria, the latter in what had previously been Sumer and Akkad, but had been known from the time of the Amorites as Babylonia.

He chose one god - the sun - but not in the traditional form of Re, but in the new form of a sun-disc, Aten. Amenhotep (meaning 'Amon is satisfied') appropriately changed his own name into Akhenaten ('the spirit of Aten'). Aten was deemed to be an exclusive and universal god, who after several years of competitive coexistence became a jealous god, so 28 The Civilizations of Asia and the Middle East that all other cults had to be abandoned. As a corollary to the universalistic message peace had to prevail; consequently the imperial interests abroad, especially in Syria, were not adequately protected.

Although there is some evidence that the Hyksos were quite keen to assimilate the Egyptian culture, they were not readily accepted by the Egyptians. Whether they were too tainted by the vestiges of the Cuneiscript civilization acquired during their sojourn in Syria, as Arnold Toynbee suggests, 26 or whether it was simply because they were not prepared to accept a second-class position within Egyptian society, as for instance the less culturally committed Libyans and Nubians did, the Hyksos after some one hundred years of domination in Egypt were expelled by their vassal king of Upper Egypt.

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