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"John Tyler Bonner is a biologist who not just is aware very much approximately vegetation and animals yet has concept lengthy and punctiliously approximately difficulties of evolution. . . . The excitement of the publication is within the wealth of examples of communique and instructing, many successfully illustrated with drawings or photographs."--J. Z. younger, The London evaluation of Books "The nice advantage of the e-book is the new edition of tradition and culture-mimicking behaviors during the animal nation, a necessary step in figuring out the possible origins and special characteristics of human sociality. Professor Bonner's variety is, as constantly, witty, and absolutely lucid."--E. O. Wilson, Harvard college "[Bonner] buildings his attention-grabbing booklet as a survey of tradition within the animal nation, marching up the venerable chain of being towards greater brains, expanding behavioral complexity, and freedom from inflexible genetic programs."--Stephen Jay Gould, the hot York overview of Books

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Cultural and Genetical Evolution · 29 both genetic and cultural components is the most desirable. The arguments for kin selection, and the evidence it does indeed apply to animals other than man is compelling. The strongest support has come from a paper of Trivers and Hare (1976) who show that the sex ratios in different groups of social insects correspond well with what one would have predicted from kin selection theory. 11 While there is still some dispute over this paper (Alexander and Sherman 1977), it is generally accepted as strong confirming evidence for kin selection.

In other words, the anatomical pattern is fixed and inherited, and gives rise to the fixed behavior pattern. It is assumed that learning works for the same goal, namely to shape a particular neuronal pathway, and once this has been achieved, the lesson has been learned. The evidence for this comes in part from the work of Greenough (1975), mentioned earlier, in young rats that had undergone a rigorous training program were compared anatomically with some deprived of the benefits of education. The trained animals showed a large increase in the number of connections between the neurons in the cortical regions of the brain.

E. Woolfenden (1973, 1975) has done a study of this situation and shown that if other birds help the parents, then the chances of their raising offspring are substantially increased. 3 were alive after 3 months 59 cases studied. The data clearly indicate that assistance substantially improves, in fact, doubles, the survival rate. 7 There is a growing literature on this subject, although there was a considerable lag after Hamilton’s key paper in 1964. The recent books of E. O. Wilson (1975) and R.

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