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By Ben Fitzhugh

In 1987, I had the nice fortune to affix within the excavation of a gorgeous archae­ ological website at the western coast of Kodiak Island, in Alaska. the hot Karluk website (a. ok. a. , "Karluk One") used to be perched at the fringe of the small village of Karluk on the mouth of the river of a similar identify, as soon as essentially the most efficient salmon rivers within the North Pacific. I had simply accomplished my sophomore 12 months of school, and less than the path of Richard Jordan, I enthusiastically joined sev­ eral different scholars within the Kodiak Archaeology tasks New Karluk excavation. I had participated in my father's archaeological examine in japanese Canada due to the fact that early youth, however the Karluk dig was once in contrast to any archaeology I had skilled earlier than. for 3 months, we peeled again layers of grass, wooden, and earth flooring separated by means of remnants of historic sod roofs. end result of the strange renovation and richness of the location, at each tum we exposed perishable goods resembling bent-wood bowls, mask, dolls, puffin-beak rattles, grass baskets, fragments of fiber netting, locks of hair, and nutrients waste. renovation used to be so very good, actually, that we regularly uncovered grass blades nonetheless eco-friendly after enormous quantities of years, which as soon as uncovered to air may tum brown ahead of our eyes.

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Extra info for The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific

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Technology. Ground stone tools were produced by sawing and snapping slate preforms and then scraping and grinding the finished product (Clark, 1982). 4, d). 3b. ) from the Tanginak Spring site (KOD 481). Photo by]. Taylor. The discovery of a stratified Ocean Bay period site with organic preservation at Rice Ridge (KOD 363) led to the first direct evidence of Ocean Bay period organic technology and subsistence. , in prep). Organic artifacts include bilaterally-barbed bone harpoons with twin line-guards that are similar to later variants found in the North Pacific.

2. Subseasonal Variation From the perspective of human ecology in the Kodiak Archipelago, the most relevant environmental variation that occurs at the subseasonal scale is day-to-day variations caused by changes in weather and in the timing and duration of biological phenomena. In winter, storms characteristically cross the archipelago at least once per week (Wilson and Overland, 1986). Storm intensity and storm path are products of the point-of-origin of the storm and the position of upper-level steering winds.

Microtus oeconomus Northern vole indigenous Citel/us parryi Ground squirrel indigenous or early prehistoric introduction Vulpes vulpes Red fox indigenous Myotus lucifagus Brown bat indigenous Mustela erminea Ermine indigenous Lutra canadensis Land or River otter indigenous Ursos arctos Kodiak brown bear indigenous Canis familiaris Domesticated dog prehistoric introduction Odocoileus hemionus Sitka black-tail deer introduced-Russian phase Castor canadensis Beaver introduced-Russian phase Oreamnos americanus Mountain goat introduced-American phase Rangifer tarandus Caribou introduced-American phase Cervus canadensis Elk introduced-American phase Ondatra zibethicus Muskrat introduced-American phase Lepus americanus Snowshoe hare introduced-American phase Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Red squirrel introduced-American phase "Sources: Rausch 1953.

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