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Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.

Many vital effects have emerged throughout the process the higher Mantle venture. the most major is the delineation in a few aspect of the 'fine structure'-the lateral and vertical diversifications of properties-of the higher mantle. those effects have totally confident us that there's a primary relation among this tremendous constitution, the motions of fabrics within the top mantle, and actions at or close to the outside of the earth reminiscent of earthquakes (and the categories of earthquake motions), volcanism, the construction and deformation of mountains, and the differentiation of varied rock varieties, together with concentrations which are of monetary curiosity.


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The matrix - R i n g w o o d , 1966 I I 0 has the rigidity G, and bulk modulus K2 of olivine; possibly slightly different values should be used for 'peridotite,' but in any case the contrast of properties between crystalline peridotite and molten basalt will be great and the conclusions not significantly different. 76 g/cm3. The Hashin relation for K of the composite material is then K/K, = 1 c(3 - 30)/(5 - 7u), or approximately 1 0 . 7 ~for relevant values of a. The MackenzieHashin relation for G is very nearly G/G, = 1 - 2c.

72, 361336326, 1967. , Elasticity and constitution of the earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 227-286, 1952. , The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars, 2, J. Geophys. , 66, 2199-2224, 1961. Bowen, N. , The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1928. , and J. Dorman, Seismic waves and earth structure in the Canadian shield, Bull. Seismol. Soc. , 53, 167-210, 1963. Bullard, E. , Discussion of paper by Revelle and Maxwell, Nature, 170, 200, 1952.

Nixon, P. , 0. von Knorring, and J. M. Rooke, Kimberlites and aesociated inclusions of Basutoland : a mineralogical and geochemical study, Am. , 48,1090-1131,1963. O'Hara, M. , Melting of garnet peridotite and eclogite at 30 kilobars, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yr. Book, 62, 71-77, 1963. O'Hara, M. , Primary magmas and the origin of basalts, Scottish J. , 1, 19-40, 1965. Oxburgh, E. , Volcanism and mantle convection, Phil. Trans. R o y Soc. London, A, 268, 162166, 1965. Copyright American Geophysical Union A Geophysical Monograph Series The Earth's Crust and Upper Mantle Vol.

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