By Christopher, Nicholson, James Clapham

Authoritative and trustworthy, this exceptional reference comprises greater than 3,000 alphabetically prepared entries, delivering transparent jargon-free definitions of even the main technical mathematical phrases. Ranging extensively from Achilles paradox to 0 matrix, the dictionary makes use of graphs, diagrams, and charts to render definitions as understandable as attainable, supplying an amazing creation to topics such linear algebra, optimization, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. The Dictionary covers either natural and utilized arithmetic in addition to records, and there are entries on significant mathematicians and on arithmetic of extra common curiosity, resembling fractals, online game idea, and chaos. the amount additionally includes helpful appendices of precious and correct additional info, together with lists of Nobel Prize winners and Fields medalists and lists of formulae. absolutely revised and up-to-date, this version gains many entry-level internet hyperlinks, that are obtainable and always up to date through the Dictionary of arithmetic spouse site, making the e-book quintessential for college kids and academics of arithmetic and for someone encountering arithmetic within the place of work.

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**Example text**

His work on hydrostatics and equilibrium was also fundamental. His most fascinating work, The Method, was rediscovered as recently as 1906. He may or may not have shouted ‘Eureka’ and run naked through the streets, but he was certainly murdered by a Roman soldier, an event that marks the end of an era in mathematics. 57 Archimedean spiral. Archimedes’ method Take a circle. Computing areas or perimeters of *inscribed and *circumscribed n-sided polygons generates two sequences, the first of which all underestimate the corresponding measurement of the circle, and the second sequence are all overestimates.

Almost all (almost everywhere) Holding for all values except on a set of *zero measure. The most striking example of a set of zero measure is the set of rational numbers, so if f(x) = a when x is rational, and f(x) = b when x is irrational, and g(x) = b everywhere, then f and g agree almost everywhere. almost surely = ALMOST EVERYWHERE in a probability measure. 38 al-Khwārizmī See under KHWĀRIZMĪ, MUHAMMAD IBN MŪSĀ AL-. alternate angles See TRANSVERSAL. alternative hypothesis See HYPOTHESIS TESTING.

It is the *moment of the *linear momentum about the point A. See also CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM. Consider a rigid body rotating with angular velocity ω about a fixed axis, and let L be the angular momentum of the rigid body about a point on the fixed axis. Then L = Iω, where I is the *moment of inertia of the rigid body about the fixed axis. To consider the general case, let ω and L now be column vectors representing the angular velocity of a rigid body and the angular momentum of the rigid body about a fixed point (or the centre of mass).