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By Don McCloy (Auth.)

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This type does not increase the applied effort; its mechanical advantage cannot exceed unity. It does, however, allow the angle of pull to be varied and this is a very useful feature. For example, it is often more convenient to pull down than to pull up (Fig. 8(6)). Why doesn't the fixed pulley increase the effort? You must remember that the pulley is free to rotate about its axle, so it behaves like a lever of the first kind with its fulcrum at the axle. Since the pulley is circular, the effort arm e and the load arm / are equal and so the mechanical advantage will be unity.

Now the mass of the Earth is about 6 x 1024 kg, so on Earth the weight (see Chapter 3) of such a body would be about 6 x 1025 N. If we assume that Archimedes could exert a force of 1000 N (see the leg lift data given earlier), then the mechanical advantage or the ratio of the arms of the lever would have to be (6 x 1025)/ 1000 = 6 x 10 22 . Now let us assume that Archimedes wished to move the Earth by one centimetre. Since the transmission factor is only 1/(6 x 1022) then he would have to move his end of the lever by 6 x 1022 cm = 6 x 10 20 m.

But you will recall that power is the rate of doing work, or work per unit time, or work per second. 5 pAV3. 50 Technology 3 M W w i n d turbine CEGB tower 400 kV metres Dutch windmill % sSt k (b) (a) Fig. 15. Developments in windmills from (a) the Dutch windmill to (c) one considered for Orkney. 000 013 7 AV 3 where P is kilowatts, A is square metres, and V is kilometres/hour. 7 kW. This formula shows that if you double the diameter of the windmill's blades you should get four times the amount of power.

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