Download Systematics And the Origin of Species: On Ernst Mayr's 100th by National Academy of Sciences, Francisco J. Ayala, Walter M. PDF

By National Academy of Sciences, Francisco J. Ayala, Walter M. Fitch, Jody Hey

In December 2004, the nationwide Academy of Sciences backed a colloquium on "Systematics and the foundation of Species" to have fun Ernst Mayr's a hundredth anniversary and to discover present wisdom about the starting place of species. In 1942, Ernst Mayr, one of many 20th century's maximum scientists, released "Systematics and the foundation of Species", a seminal booklet of the trendy concept of evolution, the place he complex the importance of inhabitants version within the knowing of evolutionary technique and the starting place of latest species. Mayr formulated the transition from Linnaeus's static species thought to the dynamic species inspiration of the trendy thought of evolution and emphasised the species as a group of populations, the function of reproductive isolation, and the ecological interactions among species. as well as a previous essay by means of Edward O. Wilson, this booklet comprises the sixteen papers awarded via amazing evolutionists on the colloquium. The papers are geared up into sections protecting the origins of species obstacles, the approaches of species divergence, the character of species, the that means of "species," and genomic techniques for realizing range and speciation.

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1986) Location of an X-linked factor causing male sterility in hybrids of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. Heredity 57, 243–246. Coyne, J. A. & Orr, H. A. (1989) Patterns of speciation in Drosophila. ) 43, 362–381. Coyne, J. A. & Orr, H. A. (1993) Further evidence against meiotic-drive models of hybrid sterility. ) 47, 685–687. Coyne, J. A. & Orr, H. A. (1997) “Patterns of speciation in Drosophila” revisited. ) 51, 295–303. Coyne, J. A. & Orr, H. A. (2004) Speciation (Sinauer, Sunderland, MA).

Because the flies are assayed in the outbred state and in an environment to which they have adapted at large size for hundreds of generations, we were able to obtain direct experimental evidence for the inter-locus arms race between the sexes that can drive the genetic divergence that leads to reproductive isolation. The technique that we describe can be applied only to laboratory populations, but we assert that laboratory populations can be constructed in such a way that the study of their evolution provides an essential complement to studies of natural populations.

We describe and use an experimental approach, called hemiclonal analysis, that can be used in the laboratory model system to simultaneously screen nearly the entire genome for both standing genetic variation within a population and the net-selection gradient acting on the variation. Hemiclonal analysis has four stages: (i) creation of a laboratory “island population”; (ii) cytogenetic cloning of nearly genomewide haplotypes to construct hemiclones; (iii) measurement of additive genetic *Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106; and †Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

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