By K. Kubitzki (auth.), Univ.-Prof. Dr. Uwe Jensen, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Joachim W. Kadereit (eds.)
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Extra info for Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae
N Ranuneulus bulbosus (st). 0 Callianthemum anemonoides (pt). p Hydrastis eanadensis (st); all x 20,000. :::. - 27 .... -D. BER PAP n BEHNKE: Sieve-element plastids, phloem proteins, and the evolution of the Ranunculanae 29 Differences are recorded for family and subfamily ave ra ges of plastid diameterso If sieve-element plastids from stern phloem are compared, those of the Lardizabalaceae and Menispermaceae have the largest and Hydrastidoideae the smallest diameters (Table 1). Where data are available, petiole and peduncle sieve-element plastids show the same trend.
In this survey, which also contains some new results, I am focusing on unusual characteristics, which are either synapomorphies or apomorphic tendencies P. K. 48 Menispermaceae Lardizabalaceae Ranunculaceae Berberidaceae ENDRESS: Papaveraceae Floral organs never spiral, not even in polyandrous or polygynous flowers Floral organs commonly in trimerous whorls, inc1uding gynoecium Floral organs spiral or irregular in polyandrous or polygynous flowers Sepals early caducous Gynoecium congenitally c10sed up to stigma Placentae protruding-diffuse in some genera PetaIs, if present, small, often apically nectariferous Fruit dehiscence transverse, if dehiscent Synandry common Carpels not peItate, even if gynoecium is unicarpellate Flowers bisexual Fruits commonly fleshy Elaborated nector-flowers present in a few genera Pollen with tricolpate-multiaperturate series (van Campo & Vernier 1984) Seeds with elaiosomes in some genera Fig.
NAST, e. , BAlLEY, I. , 1946: Morphology of Euptelea and comparison with Trochodendron. - J. Arnold Arbsor. 27: 186-192. NOWICKE, J. , SKVARLA, J. , 1982: Pollen morphology and the relationships of Circaeaster, of Kingdonia, and of Sargentodoxa to the Ranunculales. - Amer. J. Bot. 69: 990-998. OGANEZOWA, G. , 1975: On the evolution oflife forms in the family Berberidaceae sj. - Bot. Z. 60: 1665-1675. , CHASE, M. , LEs, D. , PARKS, C. , 1993: Moleeular phylogenetics of the M agnoliidae: dadistic analyses of nudeotide sequenees of the plastid gene rbc1.