By W. Edwards Deming
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Extra resources for Statistical adjustment of data
As suggested earlier, the values of a qualitative variable can always be put into numerical form. The simplest numerical form is consecutive labeling of the values of the variable. The values of a qualitative variable are also referred to as outcomes or states. Note that examples 3 and 4 above are ambiguous. In example 3, what shall we do with Canadian citizens living outside Canada? ” Example 4 is ambiguous because there may be more than one cause of death. Both of these examples show that it is not always easy to anticipate all the values of a variable.
2 error per line. But this is a tedious way to calculate the average. A simpler way utilizes the frequency distribution or relative frequency distribution. The total number of errors is (124 0) + (27 1) + (5 2) + (0 3) = 37; that is, there are 124 lines without errors; 27 lines each of which contains one error, for a total of 27 errors for these types of lines; and 5 lines with two errors, for a total of 10 errors for these types of lines; and finally, no lines with 3 errors (or more). So the arithmetic mean is y= fy = f fy n since the frequencies, f , add up to n, the sample size.
In example 3, what shall we do with Canadian citizens living outside Canada? ” Example 4 is ambiguous because there may be more than one cause of death. Both of these examples show that it is not always easy to anticipate all the values of a variable. Either the list of values must be changed or the variable must be redefined. The arithmetic operation associated with the values of qualitative variables is usually that of counting. Counting is perhaps the most elementary—but not necessarily simple—operation that organizes or abstracts characteristics.