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By Robert L. Smith

Sperm festival and the Evolution of Animal Mating platforms [Hardcover] [Dec 01, 1984] Smith, Robert L. ...

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In fact, if only t w o ejac­ ulations are possible for t h e M strategy, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d e a t h of a s p e r m during t h e entire c o n t e s t m u s t be greater t h a n 8 9 % for M t o be stable; if M delivers 2 0 ejaculations, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d e a t h m u s t e x c e e d 9 5 % . It seems likely t h a t within the range t h a t M is stable, t h e n u m b e r of ejaculations w o u l d be set b y s o m e c o m ­ petitive e q u i l i b r i u m ; such a m o d e l has n o t b e e n investigated.

Assume also t h a t p r o p o r t i o n d of all (M a n d S) sperm die in t h e female t r a c t in each interval b e t w e e n successive ejaculations m a d e b y an M strategist; d m a y well be u n d e r female c o n t r o l . So far t h e m o d e l has t h e p r o p e r t i e s of an u n p r e d i c t a b l e estrus with sperm death. N o w consider t h e following sperm c o m p e t i t i o n game. T w o males are avail­ able t h r o u g h o u t time t a n d b o t h have access t o the female for m a t i n g s .

Parker VIII. EXPENDITURE ON PATERNITY ASSURANCE R e c e n t l y , several a u t h o r s ( M a y n a r d S m i t h 1 9 7 8 a , Grafen 1 9 8 0 , Werren et al 1 9 8 0 ) have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a high certainly of p a t e r n i t y does n o t obviously favor t h e e v o l u t i o n of m a l e p a r e n t a l c a r e , or vice versa. F o r e x a m p l e , Grafen ( 1 9 8 0 ) claims t h a t "if a male c a n n o t m a t e w i t h o t h e r females while caring for the y o u n g of his p r e s e n t m a t e b u t can desert his m a t e a n d her offspring a t a n y t i m e t o search for a n o t h e r m a t e , t h e n c e r t a i n t y of p a t e r n i t y will n o t affect t h e m a l e ' s o p t i m a l degree of p a r e n t a l c a r e .

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