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Extra info for Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects
Using these two end points as limiting values, together with results from the case in which 0s are equal, and assuming simple relationships with changing levels of evenness, patterns of mating success can be predicted for conditions where resources are positively and negatively correlated with male genetic quality (Fig. 3). Increasing unevenness in resource distribution has, not unexpectedly, the same effect in both cases—increasing differences in the level of success among males. In the case in which genetic and material benefits show a strong positive correlation, a consistently high level of success for male #1 is maintained for all values of R.
If so, that strategy should characterize the behavior of individuals fertilizing the majority of eggs in the population. If not, then the same procedure is carried out for the strategy of next highest rank. This testing is continued until genetic choice represents the only remaining strategy. If this type of selection is limited, as by a high density of predators, then we might add an even lower level of "choice" onto the hierarchy. This new level would involve a tendency for females to mate with the first male that they encounter.
First, females are likely to use the same criteria in choosing males. If females are unimpeded in their ability to choose, this should lead them to a small set of males who have been able to demonstrate fitness in some significant way. Second, Orians (1969) points out that males offering high quality genetic benefits should rarely be limited in their ability to fill female needs. Males provide rapidly renewable sperm at a relatively low caloric investment, and a male should be able to mate with as many females as choose him.