By Nick Barton
Seismic measurements take many types, and feature a common function within the earth sciences. There are large rewards to be won from ‘seeing’ lower than the earth’s floor. This detailed e-book describes seismic behaviour at many scales, and gives the proper interpretation by way of rock mechanics. Reviewing examples of seismic measurements from a variety of fields in civil, mining, petroleum, geophysics, and tectonophysics, and stretching over ten orders of significance, the booklet considers seismic measurements from microcrack compliance in laboratory assessments samples to crustal and mid-ocean ridge measurements, the place the emphasis is on velocity-depth-age versions. among those extremes, Dr Barton covers in situ block assessments, borehole balance, dam and bridge foundations, quarry blasting, transportation tunnels, rock caverns, nuclear waste repository reports and mine openings. The procedure is cross-disciplinary and intentionally non-mathematical and phenomenological in nature, with a wealth of figures and a large assessment of the literature from many earth technology fields. meant for consultants, practitioners, collage academics and senior students in geophysics, geology and engineering geology who're engaged with the translation of seismic measurements in rock and petroleum engineering.
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Additional info for Rock quality, seismic velocity, attenuation and anisotropy
It is easy to imagine subway station construction under such heterogeneous conditions. It could be extremely time-consuming, and even dangerous. The cost of deeper access to the stations, via longer escalators, would be a small price to pay for much reduced tunnelling and station costs. Sjøgren, 2000 suggested the following list of essential information expected from near-surface seismic surveys, performed for civil engineering geotechnical investigations: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The velocities of the overburden layers, including the upper, less consolidated rock layers.
11 An arbitrarily chosen model for demonstrating a new method of refraction seismic inversion. , 2000 used this synthetic model for demonstrating some basic elements of the Eikonal solver, which calculates the travel time of the fastest wave at any point of a regular velocity grid, using the head waves generated in refraction seismics. The three stages of modelling shown here are: a) Wave-fronts and raypaths at receivers along the surface, when considering the whole model (but minus the acoustic wave velocity in the air, which was omitted for clarity.
Typical silicate host rocks. 8 Extreme Vp-density data for crustal rocks at 1000 MPa confinement. Birch, 1961. )). At the shallowest depths of the earth’s crust, namely the soil cover, specific depth-density-Vp relationships are also evident. Brandt, 1955, developed a theory for the influence of pressure and porosity (and saturation) on the seismic velocity in porous granular media. His elasticity-based, Hertz contact theory predicted that Vp should be proportional to the 1/6 power of the effective stress.