By Tabitha Freeman, Susanna Graham, Fatemeh Ebtehaj, Martin Richards
Assisted copy demanding situations and reinforces conventional understandings of relatives, kinship and id. Sperm, egg and embryo donation and surrogacy increase questions about relatedness for fogeys, little ones and others all for developing and elevating a baby. How socially, morally or psychologically major is a genetic hyperlink among a donor-conceived baby and their donor? What should still little ones born via assisted copy be informed approximately their origins? Does it topic if a guardian is genetically unrelated to their baby? How do stories range for women and men utilizing collaborative replica in heterosexual or same-sex undefined, unmarried mother or father households or co-parenting preparations? What influence does the broader cultural, socio-legal and regulatory context have? during this multidisciplinary ebook, a global workforce of teachers and clinicians compile new empirical study and social technological know-how, felony and bioethical views to discover the most important factor of relatedness in assisted replica.
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Additional resources for Relatedness in Assisted Reproduction: Families, Origins and Identities
Golombok, S. (2013). ‘Families created by reproductive donation’. Child Development Perspectives. 7, 61–5. Kraemer, S. (1991). ‘The origins of fatherhood: an ancient family process’. Family Process, 30, 377–92. Martin, E. (1991). ‘The egg and the sperm: how science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles’. Signs, 16, 485–501. Mead, M. (1949). Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World. London: Victor Gollancz. Nordqvist, P. and Smart, C. (2014). Relative Strangers: Family Life, Genes and Donor Conception.
What this allusion to the strangeness of assisted reproduction suggests is that, while this form of family building challenges the nuclear family norm, the ideology of biological relatedness remains deeply engrained. In deviating from internalised norms and cultural ideals about what is ‘normal’ and ‘natural’, people seek to negotiate new reproductive pathways and kinship formations as best as they can. While much has been said about the ways that assisted reproduction confronts the cultural significance attributed to gender difference – to the father who provides the sperm and the mother who gives birth – one lasting message from the experiences of those involved in assisted reproduction 18 Tabitha Freeman is that of the interdependency between the sexes and between individuals in creating families.
The first IVF baby’s fourth birthday was marked by the Government by setting up an inquiry to consider ‘recent and potential developments in medicine and science related to human fertilisation and embryology’ (Warnock, 1984: 4). The philosopher, Mary Warnock, was appointed to chair a group largely comprising of clinicians, scientists and lawyers, and just one theologian. Their report focussed on infertility and its alleviation and research on human embryos. Following the development of IVF, egg and embryo donation were now possible and there was also a new form of gestational surrogacy to consider in which an embryo created by IVF using a couple’s egg and sperm could be carried to birth by another woman.