By Padmashree Gehl Sampath
The hunt for beneficial biochemical compounds and genes in nature has been the focal point of foreign negotiations for greater than a decade, but debate at the phrases for entry to genetic assets, conventional wisdom and benefit-sharing is way from settled. This ebook examines the optimum estate rights buildings and institutional mechanisms for regulating bioprospecting for drug study. concentrating on the economics of contracts, it indicates that the rights exchanged are complementary at each one degree of drug discovery and improvement of genetic assets. the writer examines bioprospecting collaborations in numerous international locations and evaluations institutional and contractual elements that ended in their luck or failure. this can be one of many first books to handle the contractual complexities of bioprospecting for drug examine and is therefore a key textual content for coverage makers, practitioners and students within the parts of legislations, economics, ethnobotany, anthropology, and environmental sciences.
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The quest for valuable biochemical compounds and genes in nature has been the point of interest of overseas negotiations for greater than a decade, but debate at the phrases for entry to genetic assets, conventional wisdom and benefit-sharing is way from settled. This e-book examines the optimum estate rights buildings and institutional mechanisms for regulating bioprospecting for drug examine.
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Extra resources for Regulating Bioprospecting: Institutions for Drug Research, Access, And Benefit Sharing
Is this a blanket right or can it be denied only on grounds of sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity? How and on the basis of which factors can source countries set terms of compensation for use of genetic resources? Under which circumstances can such terms and conditions lead to reinforcing drug R&D based on genetic resources and under which circumstances can they potentially stiﬂe R&D efforts altogether? Can conventional intellectual property rights (IPRs) protect knowledge holdings of a different kind, namely, traditional medicinal knowledge?
4 However, this Convention was never ratiﬁed, it ended up being a mere vantage point for controversial discourses on the rights of indigenous and local communities (see Posey, 1996). 5 Article 15 and the right to regulate access to genetic resources Biodiversity and its three major components, namely, species, ecosystems and genes, possess different values for use, both from an individual and social perspective. These can be classiﬁed broadly into direct and indirect use values. Direct use values consist of those parts of biodiversity which can be appropriated as goods and can be traded in the market 38 PADMASHREE GEHL SAMPATH (Mountford and Keppler, 1999: 135–136).
What follows from such information from the R&D process is that it is probably more realistic to estimate that of over 100,000 compounds screened only one compound may warrant clinical trials. In any given scenario, the chances of discovering a useful commercial drug are enhanced if initial natural product extracts are exposed to as many screens as possible. Similarly, on the question of time-frames, it is generally estimated that it may take between 7 and 18 years from the start of any R&D programme to arrive at a marketable product (ten Kate and Laird, 1999).