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Extra resources for Reference Power Systems Protection Handbook
174. (A Reyrolle Review Reprint). 57 generator-transformer X/R. The exact value of this latter X/R, and the magnitude of each component of the transient have been evaluated for a range of impedance-ratio values in figs 16 and 17. These are based on an X/R of 30 for ZI and an X/R of 9 for Zz and Z3 which are the approximate figures for the 275-kV system. The values obtained from these curves are interesting since they show that, for a wide range of practical cases, x' is substantially below the maximum value of 30, and the proportion of current having a transient of the minimum X/R=9 is large.
8), and the effective error would be reduced over most of the working range, but would not affect appreciably the phase-angle error. Turns compensation is used to increase the accuracy of metering current-transformers but it is rarely necessary for protective current transformers, although it is often done to make these also suitable for metering. It will be seen from the above example that the: region of low initial permeability results in a considerable reduction in accuracy at low currents. This region is important in both metering and protective currenttransformers as it limits the lower value of current for which high accuracy may be obtained.
Phase-to-phase, one or two open conductors, and so on) can be solved by the conventional series of parallel connection of impedance networks. These are "complete" phase unbalance cases in the sense that the impedance of one phase is infinite or zero in a series or shunt sense. When the impedance of one phase is finite and different from that of the other two, these two connections are again valid but when all three phase impedances are different, more complicated connections have to be devised, some of which demand the use of "unilateral" mutual impedances.