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By Henning Andersen

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Extra resources for Reconstructing Prehistorical Dialects: Initial Vowels in Slavic and Baltic

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19] [13] *jesika *jelixa aa- ae-ta- aa- ee-la- e-/ae- ae-la- S- [6] [22] *jelovo *jerelü ae-/a- aa- aa- aa- e-/aa- aa- - ee- - e-lae-/a- whenever an inherited lexeme with PS E- is attested with CS *a- reflexes in distal parts of a region, it is attested with *a- reflexes in proximal parts of the same region. In other words, an attestation of a given lexeme with CS *a- in West Lechitic implies a similar attestation in proximal East Lechitic, but not vice versa (cf. 3 d]. 7); cf. 3 e). 2. 2. Implicational relations in the distribution of LCS *o- forms between distal and proximal areas West Slavic (a) Lechitic Proximal Distal Polabian vilxä Pomoranian Polish Ka.

In many localities here, there is a synchronic variation between e- and invariants that can be ascribed to influence from the standard language; in such localities, the a- forms are characteristic of the older generation, whereas the younger generation follows the norms of the standard language. But in other places, competing variants with a- and e- appear to be part of the traditional local usage. The source of any given a- forms in such dialects is uncertain. 2); (ii) interference among different Lithuanian settler dialects in the period of colonization; and (iii) more recent borrowing from dialects in areas 2 and 3 (thus Zinkevicius [1966: 123]).

But it is equally evi- The East Slavic gradations 43 dent that the gradation in the incidence of *a- forms from Russian to Belarusian to Ukrainian, which runs counter to the direction of settlement, poses a problem. 1, which contains a very telling configuration of isoglosses. 6), we observe that the northwestern limits of area 1 and of area 2 run parallel, some 80 kilometers apart, from southwest to northwest. Their parallel courses suggest that the two steps in the merger of Lithuanian initial *e- with *a~, which they reflect, originally spread from the southeast towards the northwest.

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