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By Shlomo Biderman;Ben-Ami Scharfstein

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For a discussion of this kind of "epistemic utilitarianism," see R. Firth's presidential address, "Epistemic Merit, Intrinsic and Instrumental," in Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Society, 55(1981), 5-23. I. , Justification and Knowledge (Boston-London-Dordrecht: Reidel, 1979). Philosophical Investigations, see 217. That Wittgenstein here uses the first person — where my spade is turned — is very important; yet many interpreters try to see his philosophy as one of simple deference to some "form of life" determined by a community.

6. 7. 8. 9. " A "Dutch book" is a system of bets that cannot result in a favorable outcome for the bettor, no matter how the gambles turn out. : Open Court, 1987). Peirce discusses this example in "The Doctrine of Chances," p. 69; reprinted in Chance, Love and Logic, ed. Morris R. Cohen (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1923). Reichenbach discusses the single case in The Theory of Probability (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949), pp. 372 ff. "Chance, Realism, Quantum Mechanics," Journal of Philosophy, 81(1984), 97-107.

The evaluative aspect of rationality enables a simple account to be given of the seemingly inconsistent claims made concerning both the stability of the notion and its variability, and as regards the significance of the notion and its apparent increasing emptiness. There is a stable sense to "rational," in terms of having or exercising reason up to acceptable standards; but there is considerable variation in what counts as such a 'satisfactory reason,' depending on the background framework or, more comprehensively, on the underlying paradigm.

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