By Dr. Saad S. Al-Sayari, Prof. Dr. Josef Georg Zötl (auth.), Dr. Saad S. Al-Sayari, Prof. Dr. Josef Georg Zötl (eds.)
The book of this primary quantity at the Quaternary interval in Saudi Arabia marks an important milestone within the research of this Kingdom's easy geology. It additionally represents an immense fulfillment in foreign cooperation in scholarship. The research of the Quaternary interval of Saudi Arabia was once first proposed via Austrian scientists and through the officials of the Austrian Academy of Sciences early in 1972. a gathering used to be prepared among representatives of that Academy and of the college of Petroleum and Minerals, in Vienna, in the course of may well and June of that 12 months, and tentative contract used to be reached at the info of this cooperative enterprise. An alternate of letters, fifteenth June 1972 from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and 21th June 1972 from the Uni versity of Petroleum and Minerals, officially recorded the foundation of the agree ment and organized for the 1st stopover at to Saudi Arabia of the preliminary examine group and accompanying officers from Austria. This crew used to be headed by means of Professor Dr. JOSEF ZOTL, of the dep. for Hydrogeology, Technical college of Graz, the preliminary venture director. Many scientists, directors, and officers have contributed to the luck of this basic examine undertaking. Their quantity is just too wide to say during this Foreword, however the important participants were indexed within the physique of this article along with the categorical components of research within which they participated. the large contribution of Professor Dr. ZOTL, despite the fact that, advantages unprecedented commendation.
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Additional info for Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia: 1: Sedimentological, Hydrogeological, Hydrochemical, Geomorphological, and Climatological Investigations in Central and Eastern Saudi Arabia
It has been the subject of recent intense investigation because of its remarkable drowned valleys and the information they may reveal about Quaternary changes of land level, sea level, and climate. The geomorphology of this area is closely controlled by lithology and structure. The highest peaks are usually synclinal masses of limestone and dolomite; the more gentle topography, including the interior parts of the drowned valleys, is underlain by soft shales. The coastline in many places is controlled by fault lines.
Dominated by large sand massifs commonly cresting 50 to 300 meters above the substratum, often with superimposed dune patterns consisting of various types of complex barchans. Common forms are giant barchans spanning several kilometers from horn to horn, giant sigmoidal and pyramidal sand peaks as well as other less common peak forms, and giant oval to elongate sand mounds. In the Great Nefud, classes II and III are by far the most common, but in the eastern part there is some terrain of class IV.
Sporadic, sometimes very heavy rains occur during short, unpredictable intervals in very localized areas and are followed by long dry periods. It may happen, for instance, that heavy rain falls on Dhahran whilst Ad Dammam, 17 kilometers away, remains dry. The annual precipitation at one station shows great differences from year to year. 3 millimeters only in 1946. Similar variabilities occurred at the other ARAMCO meteorological stations. 9 millimeters. 1 millimeters. 5 millimeters and in 1973 only 30 millimeters.