By Dr. William F. Clocksin, Christopher S. Mellish (auth.)
Since the 1st variation of this booklet in 1981, Prolog has endured to draw an without warning good deal of curiosity within the computing device technology neighborhood and has grew to become out to be a foundation for an enormous new relatives of programming languages and platforms for man made Intelligence. within the previous 3 versions, the authors have progressively further new fabric, superior the presentation, and corrected numerous minor error to supply a textbook in addition to a reference paintings for everybody who desires to research and use Prolog as a realistic programming language. The authors pay attention to instructing "core" Prolog. All examples comply with this common and should run at the so much widely-used Prolog implementations a few of that are indexed within the appendices with symptoms as to how they diverge from the normal.
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Extra resources for Programming in Prolog
Using Data Structures The structure a +b'" c (or + ( a , ... ( b , c» is written as: + c Th~ structure book( moby_d i ck, autho r( he rman, me 1 vi 11 e» Written as: book b is ~ moby_dick author ~ herman me 1 vi11 e Notice that the last two structures have trees of the same shape, although the roots and leaves are different. Before going further, you should make sure that you can write tree diagrams for each of the structures you have seen in the previous chapters. Suppose we are given the sentence "John likes Mary", and we need to represent the syntax of the sentence.
A,  ) ", and its tree looks like this: ~ a  Also, the list consisting of the atoms a, b, and c is written . ( a, . ( b •• ( c • [ ] ) ) ), and its tree looks like this: a ~ b ~ c Some people like to write the tree diagram of a list with the tree "growing" from left to right, and with the "branches" hanging down. The above list looks like this in such a "vine" diagram:  a b c In this vine diagram, the head component of the dot functor hangs down, and the tail component grows to the right.
Getting back to the population density example, it is not hard now to see that typical questions and their answers are: 34 Chapter 2. - density(china,X). - density(turkey,X). no In the first question, the X=200 is Prolog's answer, meaning 200 people per square mile. The second question failed, because the population of Turkey could not be found in our example database. Depending on what computer you use, various arithmetic operators can be used on the right-hand side of the "i s" operator. All Prolog systems, however, will have: x Y X - Y X + * Y X / Y the sum of X and Y the difference of X and Y the product of X and Y the quotient of X divided by Y X mod Y the remainder of X divided by Y.