By Liebal K., Waller B.M., Burrows A.M., Slocombe K.E.
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Extra info for Primate Communication: A Multimodal Approach
7 Playful interactions of chimpanzees that involve ‘playfaces’ (Photos: Katie Cronin, Katja Liebal, Cat Hobaiter). Summary This chapter provided the basis for this book by introducing the term communication and showing that communication can be understood at different levels. This is important since these levels are often confused, related to the fact that biologists are traditionally more interested in the ultimate level of communication (survival value and evolution), while psychologists mostly focus on the proximate level (causation and ontogeny).
The evolution of this high degree of visual acuity is due in part to the evolution of the eye and optical convergence, the medial or inward migration of the bony orbits and eyes from the primitive lateral position found in most other mammals.
However, all chapters share the fundamental deﬁnition of communication, which involves some form of social behaviour that transmits information from one to another individual. 30 1 What is primate communication? This chapter also introduced primates who (in contrast to many other mammals) are highly social throughout all life stages. Primates vary in regard to their social organization, structure and mating system and a complex combination of ecological and phylogenetic factors inﬂuences the evolution of their different social systems.