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By Jon Aars, Magnus Andersen, Kit M. Kovacs

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This is further supported by tracking of radio-tagged pied flycatchers (Chernetsov et al. 2004) and European robins (Chernetsov and Mukhin 2006). e. 53% in autumn. 5%, Fig. 2). However, it is worth noting again that after crossing the Gulf of Mexico 79% of radio-tracked summer tanagers continued nocturnal migration on the first night after their arrival (Moore and Aborn 1996). 5 Concluding Remarks Duration of migratory stopovers of songbirds usually varies between 1 and 15 days. Sometimes, especially before and just after crossing large ecological barriers (large water bodies, deserts) stopovers may be longer and reach 20–25 days, occasionally even longer.

Brit Birds 69:384–399 Blyumental TI, Gavrilov VM, Dolnik VR (1967) O prichinakh volnoobraznosti migratsii zyablika (On the causes of wave-like pattern of the chaffinch migration). Comm Baltic Comm Study Bird Migr 4:69–80 Bolshakov CV, Bulyuk VN, Sinelschikova A (2000) Study of nocturnal departures in small passerine migrants: retrapping of ringed birds in high mist-nets. Vogelwarte 40:250–258 Bolshakov C, Bulyuk V, Chernetsov N (2003a) Spring nocturnal migration of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus: departure, landing and body condition.

The authors suggest that such a broad annual variation was due to varying abundance of plum aphids Hyalopterus pruni that is believed to be the main food of sedge warblers in late summer and autumn (Bibby and Green 1981). 1 days when only estimates after the initial capture are included; Table A3 in Schaub and Jenni 2001a). 7 days refers to the total stopover duration in Ginak in Gambia which may refer to the wintering range rather than autumn passage. It should however be emphasized that not all long stopovers should automatically be dismissed as unrelated to ‘true’ migration.

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