By John R. Hackworth
This publication is designed to aid readers increase an exceptional normal operating wisdom of programmable controllers with focus on relay ladder common sense thoughts and the way PLC is hooked up to exterior parts in an working keep watch over procedure. The booklet makes use of actual global programming difficulties that readers can remedy on any to be had programmable controller or PLC simulator. Later chapters relate to extra complicated topics in computer controls making this a welcome boost to a private technical reference library. KEY TOPCIS: The authors research ladder diagram basics, the programmable good judgment controller, basic PLC programming, complicated programming strategies, mnemonic programming code, wiring concepts, analog I/O, discrete place sensors, encoders, transducers, and complex sensors, closed loop and PID regulate, motor controls, and procedure integrity and protection. For these serious about electric, Automation, keep an eye on, and method Engineering.
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Additional resources for PLC Programming Methods and Applications
The contact configuration on the left side of each rung can be visualized as switches and the coils on the right as lights. If the switches are turned on and off in the proper configuration, the light to the right will illuminate. The PLC executes this program from left to right and top to bottom, in that order. It first looks at the switch (contact) configuration to determine if current can be passed to the light (coil). The data for this decision comes from the output and input image registers.
JOG A condition in which the machine can be “nudged” a small amount to allow for the accurate positioning of raw material while the operator is holding the material. The machine controls must be designed so that the machine cannot automatically go from the JOG condition to the RUN condition while the operator is holding the raw material. INCH Same as JOG. CYCLE A mode of operation in which the machine RUNs for one complete operation and then automatically STOPs. Holding down the CYCLE button will not cause the machine to RUN more than one cycle.
The ladder diagram is basically a representation of the program steps using relay contacts and coils. The ladder is drawn with contacts to the left side of the sheet and coils to the right. This is a holdover from the time when control systems were relay based. This type of diagram was used for the electrical schematic of those systems. A sample ladder diagram is shown in Figure 2-6. 2-12 Chapter 2 - The Programmable Logic Controller Figure 2-6 - Sample Ladder Diagram The symbols used in Figure 2-6 may be foreign at this point, so a short explanation will be necessary.