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By Heimir Geirsson

The nature of propositions and the cognitive worth of names were the focus of philosophy of language for the previous couple of a long time. The advocates of the causal reference conception have favourite the view that the semantic contents of right names are their referents. notwithstanding, Frege’s puzzle concerning the diversified cognitive worth of coreferential names has made this id look very unlikely. Geirsson offers an in depth evaluate of the talk thus far, after which develops a unique account that explains our reluctance, even if we all know concerning the proper id, to alternative coreferential names in either uncomplicated sentences and trust contexts whereas however accepting the view that the semantic content material of names is their referents. The account specializes in matters organizing info in webs; a reputation can then entry and elicit info from a given net. Geirsson proceeds to increase the account of knowledge to non-referring names, yet they've got lengthy supplied a major problem to the causal reference theorist.

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The structure of the proposition, in a relevant sense, reflects the structure of the sentence that expresses it. Some of the virtues of this approach to propositions should already be evident, namely, we can now have necessarily true but distinct propositions, which is something that the possible worlds account of propositions has difficulty allowing for. ” Both sentences express necessary truths, but the propositions expressed have different constituents. The proposition expressed by the first sentence, but not the second sentence, has the semantic value of “Kasparov” as a constituent, while the proposition expressed by the second sentence, but not the first sentence, has the semantic values of “3” and “1” as constituents.

Instead we should understand Kripke as assuming for argument’s sake that it is false that Gödel discovered the incompleteness proof, in which case we cannot know a priori (or otherwise) that he did discover the proof. So understood the argument does not involve the complications that Jeshion introduces. Instead, the argument correctly assumes that even if the description theory Reference 23 is true, one is not justified in believing that the description that constitutes the meaning of a name correctly describes the object referred to.

That is, we associate a function with the name “elephant,” namely, a function from possible worlds to elephants. Correspondingly, we associate with sentences functions from possible worlds to truth values. That function maps a world to true if the sentence is true at that world. And now, since we take propositions to be the primary bearers of truth values, it seems to be a logical move to suggest that propositions are functions from possible worlds to truth values. Identifying propositions with functions from possible worlds to truth values is equivalent to identifying them with the set of all possible worlds at which a given sentence is true.

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