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By Ralf Schwarzer; Peter A Frensch

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Brownell, K. , Puhl, R. , Schwartz, M. , & Rudd, L. ). (2005). Weight bias: Nature, consequences and remedies. New York: Guilford Press. Bruch, H. (1961). The transformation of oral impulses in eating disorders: A conceptual approach. Psychiatric Quarterly, 35, 458–481. Brunstrom, J. , Yates, H. , & Witcomb, G. L. (2004). Dietary restraint and heightened reactivity to food. Physiology and Behavior, 81, 85–90. Fedoroff, I. , & Herman, C. P. (1997). The effect of pre-exposure to food cues on the eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters.

Besner & G. W. ), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264–336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Ogden, C. , Carroll, M. , Curtin, L. , McDowell, M. , Tabak, C. , & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1549–1555. Papies, E. , & Aarts, H. (2007). Pleasure in the mind: Restrained eating and spontaneous hedonic thoughts about food. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 810–817.

Descriptively, a clinical inference can be taken to mean the “abductive” process by which clinical data is transformed and new meaning is added to pre-existing information. Interpreting clinical material is not a question of mechanically applying rules; instead, it depends, above all, on the therapist’s skill in discovering, integrating, and explaining significant cues. In the clinical situation, with the help of our theoretical resources and techniques, we, psychotherapists, attempt to understand and account for the reasons behind our patients’ conduct.

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