By M. Baldwin (auth.), Wolfram Keup M.D. (eds.)
Hallucinations, a typical phenomenon as previous as mankind, have a shockingly wide variety. they seem less than the main different stipulations, within the "normal" psyche in addition to in critical persistent psychological derangement. As a symptom, hallucinations are a possible a part of numerous pathological stipulations in just about all different types of psychotic habit. additionally, in recent years, a number of mental and sociological conditions appear to want frequent use and abuse of hallucinogens, components in a position to produce hallucinations within the basic mind. They now not hardly ever bring about severe psychopatho logy similar to poisonous, and mobilized or irritated endogenous psycho ses. whereas such improvement provides to our clinical wisdom, it additionally contributes to our present social issues. Neurologists and neuro-surgeons, psychiatrists, psychologists and different really expert researchers always were facing the phenomenon, its roots and branches, and but, its fundamental mechanisms are mostly un identified. although, investigators of hallucinations now appear to input universal floor on which significant discussions and joint techniques turn into possible and extra promising. now we have come far from the Latin time period "hallucinari", desiring to speak nonsense, to be absent-minded, to the trendy con cept of "hallucinations". whereas the Latin be aware was once descriptive of what can be because of hallucinations, the fashionable inspiration defines hal lucinations as subjective reports which are results of guys tal approaches, occasionally pleasurable a goal within the individual's psychological life.
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Extra resources for Origin and Mechanisms of Hallucinations: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychiatric Research Association held in New York City, November 14–15, 1969
No visual effects were reported for hippocampal stimulation. Mahl and his co-workers  reported the results of depth stimulation in a single case who underwent psychological interviews during stimulation sessions. This patient reported auditory hallucinatory experiences when deep structures of the temporal lobe were stimulated using a needle electrode. No visual experiences were reported. Mahl modified Penfield's hypothesis that stimulations activated records of past experience because the hallucinatory experiences could be shown ,often, to relate to the patient's mental content before the stimulation.
Jackson: "Evolution and dissolution of the nervous system". In: J. ): Selected writings of John Hughlings Jackson, New York, Basic Books, 1958, Vol. 2. p. 25. 31. M. Baldwin and R. lEffects of unilateral section of the brainstem after mesial cerebral incision", Ann. Y. Acad. Sci. 162, 1969, pp. 459-471. 32. M. Baldwin and L. Frost: 33. L. Carroll: "Alice's adventures in wonderland and through the looking glass", New York, The Heritage Press, 1941. J. E. Adams ** University of California Medical School San Francisco, California Visual or auditory hallucinations m~ accompany epileptic seizures or auras.
When optic illusions are present, the distinction is more difficult. For example, what appears to be a black speck in one field of vision may seem to move after a short period of time. The illusion of movement may then be accompanied by an apparent change in the shape and size (metamorphopsia) or in color (metachromatopsia) of the object which ultimately appears to be an "insect" or some other animal in motion. When this illusory image becomes multiplied there is polyopia. The visualization of many "insects" crawling is now classified as an hallucination or "zoopsia".