By George H. Seward

Wisdom of microscope layout is speedily changing into extra vital. Microscopes are utilized in serious functions akin to drug improvement, scientific exams, and genomics. substantial services is needed for the assessment, layout, and manufacture of those tools. numerous subsystems needs to be built-in: the resource, the illumination optics, the specimen, the target lens, the tube optics, and the sensor. The Read more...

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Extra resources for Optical design of microscopes

Example text

The marginal ray defines the angular extent of the lens stop with respect to an image point. A chief ray travels through the margin of the field stop and the center of the lens stop; it is frequently referenced in ray calculations. 1) where n is the refractive index and θM is the angle of the marginal ray. The NA can be applied to several formats. The marginal ray can apply to the object, the image, the focal point, or even the angular field of view. The NA must be properly indentified by its location.

15) 22 Chapter 3 The optical power for an internal reflection is 1 φ IR = 2n   . 5   . 17) The optical power of an external reflection is 1 φ ER = 2   = 4 φ T . R The optical power of an internal reflection is 1 φ IR = 3   = 6 φ T . 19) Obviously, the effect of radius is much greater in reflection than transmission. The effects of surface texture and surface form error display a similar dependence. Optical power may also define angular magnification. 20) where s is spatial distance to the object.

An extraordinary spatial frequency is defined as k>N ω . 28) The existence of an extraordinary spatial frequency requires an evanescent field. Consequently, the NA may exceed a hemisphere in the presence of an evanescent field: 46 Chapter 5 π ΝA M > n sin   . 30) where Δλ is the wavelength range, and λP is the peak wavelength. The coherence length within a refractive medium is ΛC ≈ λ 2P . 31) Chapter 19 provides additional information on coherence. 11 Airy Pattern An Airy pattern is created by diffraction of waves at a circular aperture.