By Meltem Toksöz, Boğaziçi University
Meltem Toksz, Ph.D. (2001) in heritage, SUNY Binghamton, is Professor of overdue Ottoman heritage at Bo?azii collage, Turkey. She has released articles on overdue Ottoman Armenian and Greek groups of Cilicia/ukurova, and co-edited towns of the Mediterranean (IB Tauris, 2010).
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Extra resources for Nomads, Migrants and Cotton in the Eastern Mediterranean: The Making of the Adana-Mersin Region 1850-1908
As the region began to take shape, settlement became the pattern also attracting different ethnic communities such as Arab Christians and Greeks. Establishment of a provincial administration in Adana (Vilayeti) followed in 1867, which provided the governor with the power to control tax collection. New institutions, such as district and township committees, created at sub-provincial levels, presented the local powers with new political mechanisms. These township committees consisted of tax officials, kadts, police chiefs and Muslim and non-Muslim members of the local community.
The Turkish conquest of Anatolia opened this land up for all kinds of Turkic life upon which the Seljukids followed up. 22 CHAPTER ONE the Ramazanogullan, selected the area for habitation. It appears that the grazing land they leased from the Armenian Kingdom grew so large that the Mamluks recognized this tribe as the major political entity and ended Armenian rule in the 14th century. 9 However, the political structure of <;:ukurova continued to be fragile. 10 Thus becoming part of the Ottoman imperial realm, <;:ukurova still remained in a fragile political state all the way up to the period of the Tanzimat.
Miidiirliigil Ar~ivi, Anadolu Yoklama Defteri No. 2152/ 2243, dated 1133/(1720). Indeed, the census logs clearly show a differentiation between the peasantry (reaya) and nomads (cemaat), in the eyes of the central authority. Taxation was recorded according to occupation, and agnam (animal tax) indicated animal husbandry, the main source of livelihood of the nomads. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS 25 around Payas in the Lower Plain. The Ottomans considered them all as Kozanoglu, from whom fixed amounts of animal tax (agnam vergisi) could be collected.