Download Mutation-Driven Evolution by Masatoshi Nei PDF

By Masatoshi Nei

The aim of this publication is to give a brand new mechanistic idea of mutation-driven evolution according to fresh advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. the idea asserts, might be slightly controversially, that the motive force in the back of evolution is mutation, with traditional choice being of basically secondary value. The note 'mutation' is used to explain any type of swap in DNA equivalent to nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal switch, and genome duplication. a quick heritage of the central evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the speculation of mutation-driven evolution can be provided within the context of the final one hundred fifty years of study. even though, the center of the booklet is anxious with fresh reports of genomics and the molecular foundation of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. not like neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is in a position to explaining genuine examples of evolution corresponding to the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the final scheme of hybrid sterility. during this feel the idea proposed is extra lifelike than its predecessors, and offers a extra logical rationalization of varied evolutionary events.

Mutation-Driven Evolution is acceptable for graduate point scholars in addition to specialist researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) within the fields of molecular evolution and inhabitants genetics. It assumes that the readers are familiar with uncomplicated wisdom of genetics and molecular biology.

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1996) studied the frequency of the melanic form every year from 1959 to 1995 and estimated the selection coefficient against the melanic form in a nonpolluted area near Liverpool, England. 153. This estimate is considerably smaller than Haldane’s estimate of s against the wild-type allele in the polluted area. In these studies we cannot exclude the possibility that the yearly change of the frequency of the melanic form was affected by migration of the nonmelanic wild type into the populations studied because the populations studied were not isolated from other populations.

However, this view is not entirely correct, and several experiments have shown that mutation is actually necessary for a long-term response to artificial selection (Clayton and Robertson 1955; Hill 1982; Mackay 2010). As is well known, artificial selection is very different from natural selection with respect to quantitative characters. In artificial selection, a particular character, say abdominal bristle number in Drosophila, is measured at the adult stage, and a few percent of males and females with the highest bristle numbers are chosen.

Third, the polymorphism may occur because the heterozygote (A1A2) has a higher fitness than the two homozygotes (A1A1 and A2A2) (overdominant selection). In this case the polymorphism may persist in the population for a long time. For this reason, it is called balanced polymorphism. g. Wright and Dobzhansky 1946), but overdominant selection is generally considered more important than frequency-dependent selection. The idea of balanced polymorphism was first proposed by Fisher (1922). He showed mathematically that if the fitness of heterozygotes A1A2 is higher than the fitnesses of the two homozygotes (A1 A1 and A2 A2) the allele frequency of A1 eventually reaches an equilibrium and stays there indefinitely in large populations unless the fitnesses of the three genotypes change due to some environmental change.

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