Download Multinational Corporations: Emergence and Evolution by Paz Estrella Tolentino; PDF

By Paz Estrella Tolentino;

This paintings offers case-studies of the emergence and evolution of firm organisations (MNCs) dependent in 11 constructed and constructing international locations of largely divergent styles of nationwide improvement. From this research, Tolentino develops a accomplished concept of the emergence and evolution of MNCs from a macroeconomic standpoint.

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4 This is an historical application of the modern theory of ‘internalization’ of markets as applied in the case of international production by Buckley and Casson (1976). The close supervision afforded by the overseas representative would enable the foreign business to expand more rapidly inter alia because trading risks were minimized. The American merchant or trading firm could expect more personal attention to its goods, more satisfactory storage facilities, more information on markets, more beneficial credit arrangements and, more importantly, an The emergence of multinational corporations from the United States: the period until 1914 opportunity to retain profits within the firm.

Thus, in contrast to the first stage where product specifications were fundamental, production costs now become far more important. Moreover, demand for the product increases correspondingly and becomes more price elastic with increasing buyer knowledge. In time, the demand for the product increases in other relatively advanced countries as Western Europe with similar demand patterns, especially since the product has a high income elasticity of demand and is labour saving. These foreign markets are first served through exports until the marginal production and transport costs of the goods exported from the home market are below the average cost of establishing a production facility in the export market, where factor costs, appropriate technology and scale economies are divergent from those in the home market.

However, a fifth stage corresponding to the fifth stage of development was later added (Dunning, 1988). Countries at the lowest or first stage of development have little or no inward or outward FDI, and consequently a level of net outward investment (NOI) that is close to zero. Countries at somewhat higher levels of development attract significant amounts of inward FDI, but as the outward FDI of their own firms is still limited, NOI is negative. The argument then is that, past some threshold stage of development, outward FDI increases for countries at yet higher level of development.

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