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By Meni Koslowsky

This booklet offers for the 1st time a fashion of modelling stress-strain that would permit researchers to either investigate examples from the literature and properly outline and use the version of their personal investigations within the place of work.

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Example text

As will be discussed later, Crampton and Wagner (1994) showed that, in certain cases, the exclusive use of self-report scales, so-called ‘percept–percept studies’, distorted findings. 31 S T R E SS – S T R A I N R E L AT I ON S H IP IN W O R K S E T T I N G S IN DIV IDU AL S T R E S SO R S The literature is replete with stressors at the individual level. Each of our theoretical models in the second chapter contains examples of these types of stressors. For example, in the model of macro and micro stressors, the chronic hassles are typical individual stressors.

Role pressures Role conflict refers to the aspect of the job that may create some type of confusion or lack of direction (Jackson and Schuler 1985). If workers do not know what is expected of them or are told to do different tasks either by the same boss or by two different supervisors, stress may ensue. Similarly, expectations on the part of a supervisor that are difficult or impossible for the subordinate to meet may be an example of role pressure. A good example of this is a manager who may demand that a worker complete a particular task but does not give the worker adequate resources to do so.

Environmental variables (which will be discussed in later chapter), the long time on the road, and the distance are just some of the possible stressors. In the study by Van Vugt et al. (1996), employees were asked to fill out a questionnaire that contained among many other items their preferred mode of transportation (car vs. public transportation) and actual time of the commute to work. The authors found that the use of public transportation was greater if it could be associated with a shorter driving time to work.

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