By Herbert Spirer, Louise Spirer
This revised and up to date variation of a regular within the box indicators readers to the issues inherent in statistical practice—illustrating the categories of misused records with well-documented, real-world examples, approximately part new to this variation, drawn from quite a lot of components, together with the media, public coverage, polls and surveys, political elections and debates, ads, technological know-how and health and wellbeing care, and enterprise and economics.
Shows find out how to discover and rectify the incorrect or misleading utilization of quantitative information in experiences, articles, and statements, even on your personal paintings!
Extensively rewritten to account for advancements some time past decade, this moment version makes refined statistical matters available to beginners, whereas keeping technical positive factors of pertinence to execs indicates tips to establish, comprehend, and care for statistical misuses demonstrates tips on how to evaluation examples in a step by step type bargains end-of-chapter summaries facilitating at-a-glance details and extra!
Together with bibliographic citations, tables, and drawings, Misused statistics, moment version furnishes a stimulating, built-in view of the topic for statisticians; biomathematicians and clinical team of workers; political scientists; reporters; legal professionals; execs and graduate-level scholars in statistics, enterprise management, economics, demography, sociology, anthropology, common sciences, operations administration, and concrete and public affairs; continuing-education classes in data; in addition to participants with a common curiosity within the topic.
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To introduce the important and complex subject of the design of experiments, we examine a real-life experiment. h... 29/06/2006 Document Página 1 de 1 Page 17 testing a new method for reducing infection in the holes (“sockets”) left when wisdom teeth are removed (6, as discussed in 7). In this example, the reduction in infection was to be measured by comparing the new method to an existing treatment. But individuals vary greatly in their potential for infection, and their response to medication depends on their age, health, inherent characteristics of the immune system, and other confounding factors.
H... 29/06/2006 Document Página 1 de 1 Page 19 “how standardized achievement tests are used and misused [our emphasis] in policy discussions” (9). This is nothing new! Politicians, educators, and the public alike often take high school student performance on the Scholastic Achievement Test(SAT) as a measure of the quality of education received by the student. In 1974, a school introduced a competency program and then showed a gain of 31% in the SAT pass rate over the pass rate of 1971. In a classical misuse of statistics, the school's administrators claimed that this increase was a result of the program.
Or is it possible that the ad writers just don't know the errors of their ways? h... 29/06/2006 Document Página 1 de 1 Page 20 Statistical Methodology General There is no shortage of statistical methods. Elementary statistics textbooks list dozens, and statisticians constantly develop and report new ones. But if a researcher uses the wrong method, a clear misuse, to analyze a specific set of data, then the results may be incorrect. ) to a wrong conclusion. There are several ways to identify a “typical value”: arithmetic mean, median, mode, geometric mean, harmonic mean, midrange, and others.