By Roger Dean
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Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
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Additional info for Magnetic Storms
An X-ray jet has a 5 3 typical length 5xl0 -4xl0 km, velocity 30-300 km 28 25 S-I, and kinetic energy 10 _10 erg. Many jets occur in emerging flux regions, are accompanied by tiny soft X-ray brightening loops and sometimes by Ra. surges. , 1994b]. Thanks to the high sensitivity of Yohkoh SXT, many tiny transient brightenings not counted as flares have been observed in active regions and extensively studied by Shimizu et af. [1992, 1994]. , 1984]. , dNldl with a. == oc 1 -a. , Dennis, 1985]. It has not yet been clear observationally, however, whether the morphol ogy of these microflares is the same as shown in Fig- KOSUGI AND SHIBATA 31 plasmoid Fig.
Also meter-wave type III bursts are sometimes de tected, though they are usually weak in comparison with type III bursts seen in the impulsive phase. Then a major fraction of the total flare energy is re leased rather violently in a short period of less than KOSUGI AND SHffiATA several minutes typically. The energy release rate sometimes reaches 1 0 erg s' . , impulsively varying total fluxes such as seen in hard X-rays (bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons), microwaves (gyrosynchrotron emission from energetic electrons), and Y-rays (nuclear reaction lines such as the positron an nihilation line, nuclear de-excitation lines, and so on).
M a c Q u e e n , R. M . , Coronal transients: a summary, Phil. Trans, R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 58, 3 6 3 , 1980. D. thesis, University of To kyo, 1994a. , Vertical structure of hard X-ray sources in so lar flares, in Proc. of Kofu Symposium, edited by S. E n o m e and T. Hirayama, N R O Report N o . 5 5 0 , pp. 2 0 9 2 1 2 , 1994b. , T. Kosugi, H. Hara et al, A loop-top hard Xray source in a compact solar flare as evidence for mag netic reconnection, Nature, 371,495, 1994. , T. Kosugi, H. Hara et al, Hard X-ray sources and t h e primary energy-release site in solar flares, Publ.