By Michael Beck, Harald Bohme, Mirko Dziadzka, Ulrich Kunitz, Robert Magnus, Dirk Verworner
I discovered the reasons during this booklet to be very transparent, giving sufficient aspect for an outstanding head commence into Linux internals. The booklet in short explains the OS techniques, akin to semaphores, digital reminiscence, etc., via an summary of ways each one is applied in Linux, and code snippets.
Most of the code snippets are simplified for clarity, which i discovered important as the hacks could be distracting (scary, too) for a newbie. precise and updated info can top be acquired from resource code itself.
The publication assumes a few familiarity with Unix techniques, because it mentions such buzzwords as POSIX, BSD, and SVR4 within the context of the discussions, yet you possibly can accurately forget about them, and simply pay attention to the Linux part.
The publication in short covers including new approach calls, compilinag and debugging the kernel, or even exhibits the best way to write an easy equipment motive force - those are not easy to discover in a single place.
Overall, i discovered this booklet to be very worthy for my self-paced learn (the top so far), and that i simply want they'd a more moderen variation.
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Additional resources for Linux Kernel Internals
2. Here, we are more interested in the principles governing the execution of an interrupt. h. There are two types of interrupt in LINUX: fast and slow. We could even say there are three, with the third type represented by system calls, which are also triggered via interrupts. However, this chapter will only deal with hardware interrupts. Slow interrupts Slow interrupts are the usual kind. Other interrupts are legal while they are being dealt with. After a slow interrupt has been processed, additional activities requiring regular attention are carried out by the system - for example, the scheduler is called as and when required.
The variable f_count is a simple reference counter. A number of file descriptors may refer to the same file structure. As these are inherited through the system call fork, the same file Chapter 3 Introduction to the kernel structure may also be referenced from different processes. When a file is opened, f_count is initialized to 1. Every time the file descriptor is copied (by the system calls dup, dup2 or fork) the reference counter is incremented by 1, and every time a file is closed (using the Linux kernel internails - 42 - system calls close, _exit or exec) it is decreased by 1.
The count variable is reserved for future expansions. A process opening a file with open() or creat() is given a file descriptor by the kernel to use in referencing the file in future. File descriptors are small 4 The abbreviation pwd most probably derives from the UNIX command pwd - Print Working Directory - which outputs the name of the current directory. Linux kernel internails - 36 - integers. The file descriptors are assigned to the files under LINUX via the fd field in the substructure: struct files_struct files; This has four components: int count; fd_set close_on_exec; fd_set open_fds; struct file * fd[NR_OPEN]; File descriptors are used as an index in the fd field.