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By N. I. Tolstaya

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Additional info for Languages of Asia and Africa: The Panjabi Language

Sample text

Part . ) , engaged in looking at (present or pas t) perfective vekhia hoia seen kI ta hoia done The compound participle agrees w i th the word it de te rmines in gender and number . The absolute form of the participles , both simple and compound , may be used in an abso lute sense . participles take the ending � - = � -ia, mae munde hoi a s �ia . g. g . g. ph ae la�a to s traighten , let out ; = ,.... phae la-ke having let out , s traigh tened The conj ugated forms of the indica tive mood Simpl e forms The simple forms , made by adding the pers onal endings to the verbal base , include the impe rative mood , the s imple s ub j unc­ tive forms and the forms of the simple future which are deri ved from the latter .

In time An exception is formed by nouns of relationship and also by a few words of Sanskrit origin which do not change the final vowel: e. g. da di (m. ) grandfather da da kol grandfather's neta (m. ) leader neta na l with the leader A ll other masculine nouns and all feminine nouns remain unchanged in the singular oblique case: e. g. 28 Chapter 3 l Umb a� ( m . :: l Umba � nu fox fox ( acc . ), to the fox gho � I ( f . ) gho �I ute mare sabbh a ( f . : i s formed by adding -i a mw;t�a (m . ) = m�9i a nu = boys ( acc .

G. g. thai in places cah uvI pas I e verywhere ( ' on four s i des ' ) on nights rad 'mE ADJECTIVE The two characte ris ti c endings of adj ectives in Panj abi are -a , :: -a (mas culine ) and -i ( feminine ) . The adj ective normal ly precedes the subs tantive i t quali fies and agrees w i th it in gender , number and cas e ( d i rect or ob lique) Masculine adj ectives in -e or -e -a , -a , • change th i s vowel into in the s ingular ob lique and the plural direct A l l other masc uline adj e cti ves remain unchanged in cases.

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