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By Peter M. Grosz

;Junkers D.I (Windsock Datafile 33) ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ,ТЕХНИКА Название: Junkers D.I (Windsock Datafile 33)Автор: Peter M. GroszИздательство: Albatros Productions LimitedISBN: 0948414413Год: 1992Страниц: 39Формат: PDF в RARРазмер: 38.45МБЯзык: английскийThe progressive all-metal monoplanes designed in the course of WWI below the path of Professor Hugo Junkers have been the progenitors of a protracted and highly winning line of aeroplanes. The J.9/D.I monoplane arrived too past due to persuade the fortunes of the German military Air carrier and any operational actions have been restricted to postwar combating in Poland but it really is deserving of an immense place in German army aviation background. In a interval of wood, wire-braced, fabric-covered biplanes and triplanes, the goods of Junkers Werke stand aside as being sooner than their time in numerous respects.Скачать: Depositfiles UploadingHotfile zero

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Owing to very low usage of aviation gasoline today , the number of grades was reduced to three , but has recently increased to four. Aviation gasoline , to be versatile and non-restrictive in its use, requires very closely controlled volatility limits indicated by the Reid vapour pressure and the distillation tests . This immediately restricts the components that can he used in its production. The fact that the performance requirements are high still further reduces the available components. Because of the low quantity requirements and the limitation on the type of components that may be used, very few refineries now produce aviation gasoline at all, probably only four or five in Europe and the Middle East.

0 Density at 15°C. 3). 60001 1 I I 9 I g- :. O> < a> < ~. .. --0---0 Pour points xr: 10 c -c> / p al! 1 Freezing Point (D2386/IP16j The fuel sample contained in a double-walled glass tube is cooled by means of an external refrigerant , with continuous stirring. On the appearance of hydrocarbon crystals , the tube is removed from the refrigerant and allowed to warm slowly in 45 the ambient air, with continued stirring. SoC as the freezing point. This test result lies close to the cloud point, being the temperature at which the hydrocarbon crystals first appear on cooling without stirring , but differs significantly from the pour point where the crystals are so numerous that they interlock and give apparent solidity.

The techniques are similar in both cases, but the solvents are different. The basis of the process is that the feed , which has been pre-heated, is mixed with the lean solvent in an extraction unit. The aromatics dissolve in the solvent , and the raffinate leaves the top of the extractor. The aromatics-rich solvent leaves the base of the extractor and goes to a column at a higher temperature and lower pressure. This boils off the non-aromatic hydrocarbons which pass overhead, and the bottom product passes to a stripper operating at about 190°C and reduced pressure.

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