Download Individual Differences and Personality, Second Edition by Michael C. Ashton PDF

By Michael C. Ashton

How can we grow to be who we're? Why will we vary in our personalities? How do those modifications subject in existence? This textbook on Individual transformations and Personality goals to explain how and why character varies among one individual and the following. not like books that target person theorists, this e-book specializes in present learn and idea at the nature of character and similar person modifications. The ebook starts by means of discussing how character is measured, the concept that of a character trait, and the elemental dimensions of character. This ends up in a dialogue of the origins of character, with descriptions of its developmental path, its organic explanations, its genetic and environmental impacts, and its evolutionary functionality. the concept that of a character sickness is then defined, through a dialogue of the impact of character on lifestyles results in relationships, paintings, and wellbeing and fitness. eventually, the publication examines intimately the $64000 modifications among contributors within the geographical regions of psychological talents, of ideals and attitudes, and of sexuality.

Intended for classes in character and person alterations, this booklet can also function an invaluable assessment of character learn for lecturers in similar fields. Singly authored for consistency of breadth, intensity, and presentation, Individual variations and Personality will interact scholars with its fascinating boxed asides. pattern packing containers describe a wide selection of themes, together with such matters as cross-generational changes, character in animals, character and occupational selection, the function of the womb setting, and so forth. as well as protecting the massive 5 and HEXACO versions of character constitution, the ebook additionally contains subject matters usually skipped over of different character books, together with person variations in psychological skills, faith, politics, and sexuality. there's additionally deep assurance of the organic bases of character, together with discussions of neurotransmitters, mind constructions, and hormones. the reason of genetic and environmental affects is made transparent and easy, and the dialogue of evolutionary functionality is exclusive between character texts.

Table of Contents: advent; simple techniques in mental dimension; character qualities and the Inventories That degree Them; character constitution: Classifying characteristics; Developmental switch and balance of character; organic Bases of character; Genetic and Environmental affects on character; The Evolutionary functionality of character; character problems; character and lifestyles results; psychological skill; Vocational pursuits; faith and Politics; Sexuality; Conclusion.

  • Integrates study findings with genuine lifestyles results explaining why character ends up in successes or mess ups in life
  • Discusses fit personalities in addition to character disorders
  • New bankruptcy on vocational pursuits and personality
  • 35% revised
  • Well reviewed in its first edition
  • Unique assurance of the evolutionary foundation for personality
  • Strong assurance of biology, genetics, neuroscience of personality
  • Testbank for professors
  • Show description

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Additional info for Individual Differences and Personality, Second Edition

Sample text

The NPQ scales were developed to measure the same traits as those of the PRF, and have shown levels of reliability and validity approaching those of the original scales. Figure 2-1 shows two example items from the NPQ, which contains 136 items. The Big Five Inventory (BFI) The BFI (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) was developed as a short measure of five important personality characteristics known as the “Big Five” (see Chapter 3; see also the following description of the “NEO” inventories). This inventory contains only 44 items, but given its brevity, it shows rather high levels of internal-consistency reliability and of content validity.

As a result, we cannot guess very accurately how individuals will behave in one situation just by knowing how they behave in another situation. However, if we know how individuals typically behave across several situations, then we can guess very accurately how they typically behave across several other situations. In other words, even though the situation is important, we can still see very consistent differences among people when we consider their overall behavior as observed across many different situations: Traits clearly do exist2.

The potential advantage is that, if items are not obviously related to the trait they are intended to measure, it will be difficult for individuals to know how to adjust their responses in such a way as to give a desired impressiondthat is, it will be hard to “fake” responses. However, psychologists have raised some serious concerns about the use of the empirical strategy. One criticism of the empirical method involves the samples of individuals from whom data are obtained: Specifically, an item selected on the basis of its observed associations with a given variable within a certain sample of individuals might not show such strong associations within every sample of individuals.

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