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By Joe Studwell

Within the Eighties and Nineties many within the West got here to think within the fable of an East-Asian fiscal miracle. Japan was once going to dominate, then China. nations have been known as “tigers” or “mini-dragons,” and have been noticeable as not only improvement prodigies, yet as a unified bloc, culturally and economically comparable, and inexorably at the rise.

Joe Studwell has spent twenty years as a reporter within the area, and The Financial Times acknowledged he “should be named leader myth-buster for Asian business.” In How Asia Works, Studwell distills his broad study into the economies of 9 countries—Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, and China—into an obtainable, readable narrative that debunks Western misconceptions, indicates what rather occurred in Asia and why, and for as soon as makes transparent why a few international locations have boomed whereas others have languished.

Studwell’s in-depth research makes a speciality of 3 major components: land coverage, production, and finance. Land reform has been necessary to the luck of Asian economies, giving a kick begin to improvement by using a wide staff and offering capital for progress. With production, business improvement on my own isn't enough, Studwell argues. as an alternative, nations want “export discipline,” a central authority that forces businesses to compete at the worldwide scale. And in finance, powerful legislation is vital for fostering, and maintaining development. To discover all of those topics, Studwell trips everywhere, drawing on interesting examples from a Philippine sugar baron’s stifling of reform to the explosive progress at a Korean metal mill.

Thoroughly researched and bold in scope, How Asia Works is key interpreting for someone drawn to the advance of those dynamic nations, a quarter that would form the way forward for the realm.

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The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Korean Nuclear Crisis. : Brookings Institution Press, 2007. Green and Bates Gil, 1-29. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Gill, Bates, Michael Green, Kiyoto Tsuji, William Watts. Strategic Views on Asian Regionalism Report Release. Washington DC: CSIS, February 2009. Goldstein, Avery. Rising to the Challenge China's Grand Strategy and International Security. : Stanford University Press, 2005. , and Bates Gill. Asia's New Multilateralism : Cooperation, Competition, and the Search for Community.

122. THE EVOLUTION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE KOREAN PENINSULA 45 有忘记苏联提供的各方面帮助,但是当中苏关系恶化时,朝鲜明确表示,中国 才是他们的头号盟友,而苏联则被排在第二位。为了争夺朝鲜,苏联加大了对 ① 朝鲜的拉拢力度,到 60 年代中期,朝鲜由明显倾向中国转为倾向苏联。 1965 年 2 月,苏联部长会议主席柯西金访朝,重申《苏朝友好合作互助条约》的重 要性。1966 年 6 月 20 日,苏朝两国政府在莫斯科签署了《经济技术合作协议》 与《1966-1970 年间相互供货协议》。前一个协议无条件地将朝鲜自 1949 年起 拖欠苏联的长期贷款延长到 1971 年后支付,并为朝鲜扩大冶金企业的产能,建 设新的热电站、石化厂等项目提供资金和技术上的帮助;后一个协议则大幅扩 ② 大了两国间相互供货的数量和范围。 这些举措使苏朝关系的发展出现了一波 新的高潮,但是很快两国就因朝鲜半岛局势问题发生分歧。朝鲜不断挑起朝鲜 半岛的紧张气氛,南北武装冲突的数量从 1966 年的 50 起增加到 1967 年的 829 起。1968 年 1 月,朝鲜政府在其领海扣留了美国“普埃布拉”号间谍船,并在 对美谈判中表现出不惜一战的强硬姿态,这使苏美关系也几乎走到了爆发冲突 的边缘。尽管该次事件最后以美国做出让步而告终,但是通过这一事件,苏联 认为不能再放任朝鲜的冒险做法。苏方要求与朝鲜就《苏朝友好合作互助条约》 的条款进行谈判,对其中关键性的条款做出了新的解释,将签约一方遭受武力 入侵之外的情况明确排除在联盟一方的义务之外。苏联还具体地说明了几种可 ③ 能的军事冲突,在这些情况下,苏联将不会介入。 1969 年 4 月 15 日,朝鲜击 落一架美国间谍飞机,苏联未给予朝鲜支持,还帮助美方寻找飞行员,朝鲜于 是再次站在了中国这一边。苏联与朝鲜的经济合作关系也在这一年达到峰值后 逐年下滑。 70 年代的国际环境促使朝鲜选择一条独立自主的发展道路,来自苏联和中 国的援助在逐步减少,而冷战的形势也在不断缓和。韩国是越战的亲身参与者, 战争的结局使美国不得不撤出越南,韩国从越南战争的结局中意识到,如果朝 鲜半岛再次发生南北战争的话,那么美国很可能采取放弃的政策,因此韩国不 能将安全和统一的希望完全寄托于美国的帮助,而必须探索一条独立的道路。 1973 年 6 月 23 日,韩国总统朴正熙发表了《有关和平统一外交政策的特别声 明》,标志着韩国新“北方政策”的开启,该政策的实质是寻求与社会主义国 ① ② ③ 杨军、王秋彬:《中国与朝鲜半岛关系史论》,社科文献出版社,2006年,第240页。 Отношения Советского Союза с народной Кореей(1945-1980),документы и материалы.

Cossa, Ralph. " 1-10. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2009. Crone, Donald. "Does Hegemony Matter? " World Politics 45, no. 4 (1993): 501-25. Friedberg, Aaron. " International Security 18, no. 3 (1993/94): 3-33. Fukuyama, Francis. " Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (2005): 75-87. Funabashi, Yoichi. The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Korean Nuclear Crisis. : Brookings Institution Press, 2007. Green and Bates Gil, 1-29. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Gill, Bates, Michael Green, Kiyoto Tsuji, William Watts.

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