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By James S. Albert

The fish faunas of continental South and important the USA represent one of many maximum concentrations of aquatic variety in the world, including approximately 10 percentage of all dwelling vertebrate species. old Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes explores the evolutionary origins of this particular environment. The chapters tackle crucial topics within the research of tropical biodiversity: why is the Amazon basin domestic to such a lot of specific evolutionary lineages? What roles do ecological specialization, speciation, and extinction play within the formation of neighborhood assemblages? How do dispersal boundaries give a contribution to isolation and diversification? targeting complete faunas instead of person taxonomic teams, this quantity exhibits that the area's excessive neighborhood range isn't the results of fresh diversification in lowland tropical rainforests. fairly, it's the fabricated from species collecting over millions of years and throughout a continental enviornment.

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Most studies to date have been based on what is essentially a single molecular locus: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). MtDNA is readily amplified from ethanol-preserved tissue, but because the mitochondrial genome is non-recombining and maternally inherited, it may not necessarily share the same genealogical history as loci from the nuclear genome (Avise et al. 1987; Avise 1994). Many studies have shown how mtDNA lineages may cross species boundaries in freshwater fishes, as a result of introgressive hybridization (Bermingham and Avise 1986; G.

The available climate record from pollen data suggests general stability and continuity of the forest cover across the Amazon lowlands throughout the Cenozoic (Irion and Kalliola 2010). As in many studies of lineage divergence times, there is a noticeable difference between age estimates derived from extant taxa using molecular data and from stratigraphic data in fossils. Molecular and biogeographic data suggest that many lineages of rainforest taxa (fishes, plants, insects) had origins in the Cretaceous, although direct paleontological evidence for this conclusion is rare or equivocal (Chapter 6).

50 (Preston 1960; McPeek and Brown 2007; Dengler 2009). Because the scaling exponent b defines the slope of the (log-log) species-area regression, it may be interpreted as a measure of gamma diversity between areas, with higher values indicating greater differences in the taxonomic composition of areas. 2; see also Chapters 7 and 18). 01). However, the base-line diversities of these regions do differ, as may be seen in the y-intercept values; cis-Andean basins have the most species at a given area, and BI OG EOG R APH I C AN D PH Y L OG EN ETI C PATTERNS 23 Freshwater ecoregions of tropical South America (after Abell et al.

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