Download Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and by George R. Zug PDF

By George R. Zug

Herpetology has continually been some of the most intriguing disciplines of zoology. in the past few years the sphere has persisted to develop, but it's been tormented by shortage of finished, up to date textbooks containing an important advancements. This well timed booklet fills that void. via skillful synthesis, the writer summarizes the variety within the biology of residing amphibians and reptiles and describes the breadth of present herpetological examine. subject matters lined comprise the evolution, type, improvement, copy, inhabitants, and environmental concerns surrounding the learn of amphibians and reptiles. Designed as a sophisticated undergraduate textbook, Herpetology is a helpful source for college kids, practitioners, and amateurs alike.

Key Features
* offers an incisive survey and lots more and plenty wanted replace of the field
* Emphasizes the organic variety between amphibians and reptiles
* information the newest examine findings, bringing up key references
* comprises greater than two hundred new illustrations and photographs
* encompasses a precis of the historical past of herpetology
* good points an intensive bibliography

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Extra info for Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles

Sample text

Salamanders, caecilians, and a few frogs lack tympana. In these amphibians, lowfrequency sounds may be transmitted via the appendicular and cranial skeleton to the inner ear. Unlike amniotes, the amphibian middle ear has two auditory pathways: the tympanum-columella path for airborne sounds and the forelimb-opercular path for seismic sounds. Both pathways reach the inner ear through the fenestra ovalis of the otic capsule. The tympanum-columella path is shared with the other tetrapods. In amphibians, it is a single bony rod (columella) extending between the external eardrum and the fenestra ovalis o f the inner ear.

The chain o f action begins with the release o f neurohormones by the brain cells. These hor­ mones reach the neurohypophysis through blood vessels or secretory axons of neurons ending in the neurohypophysis. , GnRH, gonadotropinreleasing hormone) or act directly on the target organs (ADH, antidiuretic hormone; M S H , melanophore-stimulating hormone). The adenohypophysis se­ cretes six major hormones: adrenocorticotropin, two gonadotropins (FSH, L H ) , prolatin, somatotropin, and thyrotropin.

Thus, the lepospondyls ( = Aistopoda + Microsauria + Nectridea) are a com­ posite group o f unrelated tetrapods. The content o f temnospondyls equals the content o f the present Amphibia without the lepospondyls. Labyrinthodont amphibian also has had long and frequent use. Its use encompassed a broad spectrum o f early tetrapods, including the temnospondyls, anthracosaurs, and 45 Fish to Tetrapod ,. Sahentja Caudata \ Λ ,. 1 • A Y A Y A Y A Y A T A Y A T A T A Y A Y A Y A Y A Y A Y A Y A T A T A T A Y A Y A branching diagram o f the evolution of early tetrapods and amphibians.

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