By Mauro Zonta
In their pursuit of a renewal of Jewish philosophy, a couple of students energetic in Spain and Italy within the moment half the 15th century (Abraham Bibago, Baruch Ibn Ya‘ish, Abraham Shalom, Eli Habillo, Judah Messer Leon) became to the doctrines and techniques of latest Latin Scholasticism. those philosophers, who learn Latin rather well, have been inspired by way of the theories formulated through their Latin colleagues (Albert the good, Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, John Duns Scotus and their followers). They composed unique works in Hebrew (mainly commentaries and questions about Aristotle), during which they faithfully reproduced the recommendations and terminology of past due Scholasticism, and explicitly quoted and mentioned Scholastic texts and doctrines approximately common sense, physics, metaphysics and ethics.
Thus, in 15th century Italy and Spain there got here into being what we might name a "Hebrew Scholasticism": Jewish authors composed philosophical treatises during which they mentioned an identical questions and used a similar tools as modern Christian Schoolmen. those thinkers weren't easily encouraged by means of Scholasticism: they have been actual Schoolmen who attempted to take part (in a distinct language) within the philosophical debate of latest Europe.
A historical past of "Hebrew Scholasticism" within the 15th century is but to be written. lots of the assets themselves stay unpublished, and their contents and dating to Latin assets haven't but been studied intimately. what's wanted is to give, edit, translate and touch upon the most major texts of "Hebrew Scholasticism", in order that students can reach a extra unique notion of its quantity and character.
This booklet goals to answer this want. After a ancient creation, the place a "state of the artwork" approximately learn at the dating among Jewish philosophy and technological know-how and Latin Scholasticism within the thirtheenth-fifteenth centuries is given, the ebook contains 4 chapters. each one of them bargains a normal bio-bibliographical survey of 1 or key-authors of fifteenth-century "Hebrew Scholasticism", through English translations of a few in their most important "Scholastic" works or of a few components of them: Abraham Bibago’s "Treatise at the Plurality of Forms", Baruch Ibn Ya’ish’s commentaries on Aristotle’s "Nicomachean Ethics" and "De anima", Eli Habillo’s creation to Antonius Andreas’s observation at the "Metaphysics", Judah Messer Leon’s statement on Aristotle’s "Physics" and questions about Porphyry’s "Isagoge". The Hebrew part contains serious versions of a few of the translated texts, and a Latin-Hebrew word list of technical phrases of Scholasticism.
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Additional info for Hebrew Scholasticism in the Fifteenth Century: A History and Source Book
41r, ll. ] “the deﬁnition concerns only form and its parts”; 4. [f. 42r, ll. ] 17 See Steinschneider, Abraham Bibago, p. 134 note 47. ) is found in the ms. Munich, hebr. 357, f. 108v: “Nicholas Bonet [ . . ] said that [being] is not predicated in anteriority and posteriority, but is a ﬁrst genus, and a supreme genus divided into its ﬁrst species, which (according to him) are limited quiddity and unlimited quiddity: limited quiddity is divided into other species (and so the division is completed), while unlimited quiddity is the quiddity of the thing, concrete reality (mammashut) and essence .
152–153. 112 On Judah Messer Leon as a “Hebrew Schoolman”, see the sketch in TiroshRothschild, Jewish Philosophy, pp. 514–515; Manekin, Scholastic Logic, pp. 137–138 (where he is deﬁned as “a scholastic logician writing in Hebrew”); see also below, chapter 4. introduction 27 his successor, Gaetano de Thiene (1387-1465). 113 Alongside this Hebrew “extension” of the Paduan school, there was also a sort of “Hebrew Latin Averroism”. The latter was based, rather than on the old translations of Averroes’s works from Arabic into Hebrew, on new Hebrew translations of texts pertaining to the Latin Averroism that was ﬂourishing again in Italy after 1450.
Fioravanti, C. Leonardi and S. ), Il commento ﬁlosoﬁco nell’Occidente latino (secoli XIII–XV), Turnhout 2002, 379–400; see also below, chapter 4. 114 On these translations, see below, chapter 2. 115 See below, chapter 4. , Elijah del Medigo’s explicit refer¨ ence to the Summa contra Gentiles (see Steinschneider, Hebraeischen Ubersetzungen, p. 487 note 149), or the quotation of Thomas’s commentary on the Metaphysics (T . ar) in the anonymous commentary on some parts of Avicenna’s Canon, book I, preserved in the ms.