By Serge A. Shapiro
The characterisation of fluid shipping homes of rocks is without doubt one of the most crucial, but tricky, demanding situations of reservoir geophysics, yet is key for optimum improvement of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. This e-book offers a quantitative creation to the underlying physics, program, interpretation, and danger points of fluid-induced seismicity with a selected specialise in its spatio-temporal dynamics. It offers many genuine facts examples of microseismic tracking of hydraulic fracturing at hydrocarbon fields and of stimulations of more desirable geothermal structures. the writer additionally covers introductory features of linear elasticity and poroelasticity conception, in addition to parts of seismic rock physics and mechanics of earthquakes, permitting readers to increase a accomplished realizing of the sphere. Fluid-Induced Seismicity is a worthwhile reference for researchers and graduate scholars operating within the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics and petrophysics, and a realistic advisor for petroleum geoscientists and engineers operating within the power undefined.
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Extra resources for Fluid-Induced Seismicity
Cross-correlation coefficients. , (2010) used the following definitions. The normalized cross-correlation function ci j (t) between two traces u i (t) and u j (t) is defined as ci j (t) = u i (t ) u j (t − t) dt u i2 (t )dt × u 2j (t )dt 1 2 . 136) The cross-correlation coefficient is then defined as the absolute maximum of the cross-correlation function, CCi j = max[|ci j (t)|]. g. P- or S-waveforms). Clustered multiplet events can be observed in the seismicity induced by artificial rock stimulations as well as in natural seismicity.
This is a broad field of scientific research. Here we provide a brief overview of some results that we use in this book. For a more comprehensive treatment of the subject the reader should consult such books as Segall (2010), Jaeger et al. (2007), Scholz (2002) and references therein. We consider a plane penny-shaped crack of radius X/2 or a 2D crack infinite in the x2 direction and of length X in the x1 direction. Griffith (1921, 1924) formulated conditions for a growth of finite cracks based on an energy-balance consideration.
95) is often generalized to take into account the energy required for creating damaged zones (Kanamori and Brodsky, 2004). This criterion does not take into account seismic radiation occurring by dynamic propagation of the rupture. In this sense it is a condition for a quasi-static growth of the crack. The criterion for dynamic crack extension must also take into account the energy required for radiating seismic wavefields depending on the rupture velocity (Rice, 1980; Kanamori and Brodsky, 2004).