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By David M. Buss

The 3rd version of Evolutionary Psychology continues to be the most excellent textual content for the burgeoning box of evolutionary psychology, and this significant replace includes approximately four hundred new references.

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Extra info for Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind (3rd Edition)

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Human breasts are merely one modern form of an adaptation whose origins can be traced back more than 200 million years. Another major development was the evolution of placental mammals around 114 million years ago, as contrasted with egglaying nonplacentals. In placental mammals, the fetus attaches to the mother inside her uterus through a placenta, which allows the direct delivery of nutrients. 0 my a Hominids spread to Europe 800 thousand years ago (kya) Crude stone tool kit-found in Spain, linked with Homo antecessor 600-400 kya Long crafted wooden spears and early hearths; linked with Homo heidelbergensis found in Germany 500-100 kya Period of most rapid brain expansion in Homo line 200-30 kya Neanderthals flourish in Europe and western Asia 150--120 kya Common ancestor for all modem humans (Africa) 100-50 kya Exodus from Africa-second major migration ["Out of Africa"] 50-35 kya Explosion of diverse stone tools, bone tools, blade tools, well-designed fireplaces, elaborate art; found only among Homo sapiens, not among Neanderthals 40-35 kya Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnons) arrive in Europe 30kya Neanderthals go extinct 27 kya-present Homo sapiens colonize entire planet; all other hominid species are now extinct Note: These dates are based in part on infonnation from a variety of sources, including Johanson & Edgar (1996), Klein (2000), Lewin (1993), Tattersall (2000), Wrangham, Jones, Laden, Pilbeam, & Conklin-Brittain (1999), and the references contained therein.

Second, if the DNA of modern humans contained Neanderthal DNA, we would expect it to be most similar to living Europeans, who currently reside in the Neanderthals' former territory. But the Neanderthal DNA is no closer to that of living Europeans than it is to the DNA of modern people living in other parts of the world. Third, modem human populations show an exceptionally low amount of genetic variation, suggesting that we all came from a relatively small popUlation of more genetically homogeneous founding ancestors.

An organism can also increase the reproduction of its genes by helping brothers, sisters, nieces, or nephews to survive and reproduce. All these relatives have some probability of carrying copies of the organism's genes. Hamilton's genius was in the recognition that the definition of classical fitness was too narrow and should be broadened to inclusive fitness. Technically, inclusive fitness is not a property of an individual or an organism but rather a property of its actions or effects. Thus, inclusive fitness can be viewed as the sum of an individual's own reproductive success (classical fitness) plus the effects the individual's actions have on the reproductive success of his or her genetic relatives.

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